Q. J. Cao

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BACKGROUND Serum levels of a secreted glycoprotein YKL-40 are elevated in patients with a wide range of cancers including breast, colorectal, and ovarian cancers. Furthermore, these increased levels correlate with poorer survival of cancer patients, suggesting that serum levels of YKL-40 might be a prognostic biomarker. However, the tissue expression of(More)
We previously reported that a secreted glycoprotein YKL-40 acts as an angiogenic factor to promote breast cancer angiogenesis. However, its functional role in normal mammary gland development is poorly understood. Here we investigated its biophysiological activity in mammary epithelial development and mammary tissue morphogenesis. YKL-40 was expressed(More)
In this paper, we investigate the nonlinear behavior of the recently proposed rotating pendulum which is a cylindrically nonlinear system with irrational type having smooth and discontinuous characteristics depending on the value of a smoothness parameter. We introduce a cylindrical approximate system whose analytical solutions can be obtained successfully(More)
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