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Impairment of folate and cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) metabolism has been observed in families with neural tube defects (NTDs). Genetic variants of enzymes in the homocysteine remethylation pathway might act as predisposing factors contributing to NTD risk. The first polymorphism linked to increased NTD risk was the 677C-->T mutation in(More)
In this paper, we present a full velocity difference model for a car-following theory based on the previous models in the literature. To our knowledge, the model is an improvement over the previous ones theoretically, because it considers more aspects in car-following process than others. This point is verified by numerical simulation. Then we investigate(More)
The genomic organization of the human protocadherin alpha, beta, and gamma gene clusters (designated Pcdh alpha [gene symbol PCDHA], Pcdh beta [PCDHB], and Pcdh gamma [PCDHG]) is remarkably similar to that of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes. The extracellular and transmembrane domains of each protocadherin protein are encoded by an unusually large(More)
The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved cellular programme that has an important role in normal embryogenesis and in cancer invasion and metastasis. We report here that Twist2, a tissue-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is overexpressed in human breast cancers and lymph node metastases. In mammary epithelial(More)
Malignant gliomas contain a population of self-renewing tumorigenic stem-like cells; however, it remains unclear how these glioma stem cells (GSCs) self-renew or generate cellular diversity at the single-cell level. Asymmetric cell division is a proposed mechanism to maintain cancer stem cells, yet the modes of cell division that GSCs utilize remain(More)
The paired helical filaments (PHFs) found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains are composed primarily of the microtubule-associated protein tau. PHF-tau is in a hyperphosphorylated state and is unable to promote microtubule assembly. We investigated whether the inhibition of tau binding to microtubules is increased when tau is phosphorylated by different(More)
This paper presents a new optimization algorithm – MCPSO, multi-swarm cooperative particle swarm optimizer, inspired by the phenomenon of symbiosis in natural ecosystems. MCPSO is based on a master–slave model, in which a population consists of one master swarm and several slave swarms. The slave swarms execute a single PSO or its variants independently to(More)
Malignant gliomas are lethal cancers that display cellular hierarchies with cancer stem cells at the apex. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are not uniformly distributed, but rather located in specialized niches, suggesting that the cancer stem cell phenotype is regulated by the tumor microenvironment. Indeed, recent studies show that hypoxia and its molecular(More)