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Orexins, also called hypocretins, are newly discovered hypothalamic peptides that are thought to be involved in various physiological functions. In spite of the fact that orexin receptors, especially orexin receptor 2, are abundant in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the effects of orexins on PVN neurons remain unknown. Using a whole cell(More)
The effects of pentobarbital sodium, chloralose and urethane on norepinephrine (NE) release in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region were examined in awake rats. An in vivo microdialysis method was used. Extracellular NE concentrations in the PVN region were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of mild intermittent footshock stress can cause changes in the nitric oxide (NO) and norepinephrine (NE) releases in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Extracellular levels of NO metabolites and NE in the PVN region and mPFC were(More)
Chronically instrumented, conscious rats were used to examine whether mild exteroceptive stress produces differential neurochemical changes in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. We constructed systems for stress experiment of air jet and swing rotation that were conducted on freely moving conscious rats in a computer-controlled home(More)
To elucidate neurochemical mechanisms responsible for cardiovascular responses induced by central salt loading, we directly perfused the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus region with hypertonic saline (0.3 or 0.45 M) by using an in vivo brain microdialysis technique. We then measured the extracellular concentrations of glutamate in the PVN(More)
We investigated the involvement of dopamine (DA) and its D1 receptors of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) in spatial learning and memory deficits in a rat model of vascular dementia (VD) established by permanent bilateral carotid occlusion. Spatial learning and memory abilities of rats were measured by Morris water maze, and extracellular concentrations(More)
Using an in vivo brain microdialysis technique, we measured extracellular levels of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NO(x)(-)) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) upon perfusion of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor antagonists as well as agonists, and also examined the effects of GABA receptor agonists on mild intermittent footshock-induced NO(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) has recently been shown to modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). We measured levels of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region using an in vivo brain microdialysis technique in conscious rats. Intraperitoneally administered IL-1 beta(More)
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