Pyry Antti Välitalo

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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Although the pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine in healthy volunteers have been studied, there are limited data about the pharmacokinetics of long-term administration of dexmedetomidine in critically ill patients. METHODS This population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to quantify the pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine(More)
To characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of oxycodone following intravenous injection and administration of three oral dosage forms (solution, capsule, and controlled-release tablet) in elderly patients (age 76–89 years) undergoing cystoscopy. This was an open, randomized study with two sequences and two visits in 15 elderly patients. The patients were(More)
INTRODUCTION Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is mainly metabolized via glucuronidation and sulphation, while the minor pathway through cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 is held responsible for hepatotoxicity. In obese patients, CYP2E1 activity is reported to be induced, thereby potentially worsening the safety profile of acetaminophen. The aim of this study was to(More)
Obtaining pharmacologically relevant exposure levels of antibiotics in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is of critical importance to ensure optimal treatment of lung infections. Our objectives were to develop a model for the prediction of the ELF-plasma concentration ratio (EPR) of antibiotics based on their chemical structure descriptors (CSDs). EPR data(More)
The aim of the current population pharmacokinetic study was to quantify oxycodone pharmacokinetics in children ranging from preterm neonates to children up to 7 years of age. Data on intravenous or intramuscular oxycodone administration were obtained from three previously published studies (n = 119). The median [range] postmenstrual age of the subjects was(More)
Pain cannot be directly measured in neonates. Therefore, scores based on indirect behavioural signals such as crying, or physiological signs such as blood pressure, are used to quantify neonatal pain both in clinical practice and in clinical studies. The aim of this study was to determine which of the physiological and behavioural items of 2 validated pain(More)
Predicting target site drug concentration in the brain is of key importance for the successful development of drugs acting on the central nervous system. We propose a generic mathematical model to describe the pharmacokinetics in brain compartments, and apply this model to predict human brain disposition. A mathematical model consisting of several(More)
Allometric scaling on the basis of bodyweight raised to the power of 0.75 (AS0.75) is frequently used to scale size-related changes in plasma clearance (CLp) from adults to children. A systematic assessment of its applicability is undertaken for scenarios considering size-related changes with and without maturation processes. A physiologically-based(More)
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