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An acousto-optic imaging technique suitable for the local and quantitative determination of subsurface optical properties in turbid media is presented. Acousto-optic signals elicited by ultrasound pulses at two different peak pressures in turbid media are detected by using photorefractive-crystal-based interferometry. The ratio of the measured signals, once(More)
High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a promising modality that is used to noninvasively ablate soft tissue tumors. Nevertheless, real-time treatment monitoring with diagnostic ultrasound still poses a significant challenge since tissue necrosis, in the absence of cavitation or boiling, provides little acoustic contrast with normal tissue. In(More)
Phase distortions due to scattering in random media restrict optical focusing beyond one transport mean free path. However, scattering can be compensated for by applying a correction to the illumination wavefront using spatial light modulators. One method of obtaining the wavefront correction is by iterative determination using an optimization algorithm. In(More)
Non-invasively focusing light into strongly scattering media, such as biological tissue, is highly desirable but challenging. Recently, ultrasonically guided wavefront shaping technologies have been developed to address this limitation. So far, the focusing resolution of most implementations has been limited by acoustic diffraction. Here, we introduce(More)
Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing was recently proposed to deliver light dynamically to a tight region inside a scattering medium. In this letter, we report the first development of a reflection-mode TRUE optical focusing system. A high numerical aperture light guide is used to transmit the diffusely reflected light from a turbid(More)
Focusing light deep inside living tissue has not been achieved despite its promise to play a central role in biomedical imaging, optical manipulation and therapy. To address this challenge, internal-guide-star-based wavefront engineering techniques--for example, time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing--were developed. The speeds of(More)
In turbid media such as biological tissue, multiple scattering hinders direct light focusing at depths beyond one transport mean free path. As a solution to this problem, time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing is proposed based on ultrasonic encoding of diffused laser light and optical time reversal. In TRUE focusing, a laser beam of(More)
Scattering dominates light propagation in biological tissue, and therefore restricts both resolution and penetration depth in optical imaging within thick tissue. As photons travel into the diffusive regime-typically 1 mm beneath human skin, their trajectories transition from ballistic to diffusive due to increased number of scattering events, which makes(More)
By detecting ultrasonically tagged diffuse light, ultrasound-modulated optical tomography images optical contrast with ultrasonic resolution deep in turbid media, such as biological tissue. However, small detection etendues and weak tagged light submerged in strong untagged background light limit the signal detection sensitivity. In this Letter, we report(More)
We report an experimental investigation of time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing in biological tissue. This technology combines the concepts of optical phase conjugation and ultrasound modulation of diffused coherent light. The ultrasonically encoded (or tagged) diffused light from a tissue sample is collected in reflection mode and(More)