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TLR4 and MD-2 form a heterodimer that recognizes LPS (lipopolysaccharide) from Gram-negative bacteria. Eritoran is an analog of LPS that antagonizes its activity by binding to the TLR4-MD-2 complex. We determined the structure of the full-length ectodomain of the mouse TLR4 and MD-2 complex. We also produced a series of hybrids of human TLR4 and hagfish VLR(More)
BACKGROUND Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in innate immunity. TLRs are membrane glycoproteins and contain leucine rich repeat (LRR) motif in the ectodomain. TLRs recognize and respond to molecules such as lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, flagellin, and RNA from bacteria or viruses. The LRR domains in TLRs have been inferred to be(More)
LRR-containing proteins are present in over 2000 proteins from viruses to eukaryotes. Most LRRs are 20-30 amino acids long, and the repeat number ranges from 2 to 42. The known structures of 14 LRR proteins, each containing 4-17 repeats, have revealed that the LRR domains fold into a horseshoe (or arc) shape with a parallel beta-sheet on the concave face(More)
The problem of fitting a helix to data arises in analysis of protein structure, in nuclear physics, and in engineering. A continuous helix is described by five parameters: helix axis, helix radius, and helix pitch. One of these helix parameters is frequently predefined in the helix fitting. Other algorithms find only the helix axis or determine separately(More)
A method is proposed to measure global bending in DNA and RNA structures. It relies on a properly defined averaging of base-fixed coordinate frames, computes mean frames of suitably chosen groups of bases and uses these mean frames to evaluate bending. The method is applied to DNA A-tracts, known to induce considerable bend to the double helix. We performed(More)
The NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that are involved in the innate, pathogen pattern recognition system. The TLR and NLR receptors contain leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) that are responsible for ligand interactions. In LRRs short β-strands stack parallel and then the LRRs form a super helical(More)
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