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Collaborative Filtering (CF) technique has proven to be promising for implementing large scale recommender systems but its success depends mainly on locating similar neighbors. Due to data sparsity of the user–item rating matrix, the process of finding similar neighbors does not often succeed. In addition to this, it also suffers from the new user (cold(More)
Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a meta-heuristic based on colony of artificial ants which work cooperatively, building solutions by moving on the problem graph and by communicating through artificial pheromone trails mimicking real ants. One of the active research directions is the application of ACO algorithms to solve dynamic shortest path problems.(More)
Fingerprints are the oldest and most widely used form of biometric identification. Everyone is known to have unique, immutable fingerprints. As most Automatic Fingerprint Recognition Systems are based on local ridge features known as minutiae, marking minutiae accurately and rejecting false ones is very important. However, fingerprint images get degraded(More)