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Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a meta-heuristic based on colony of artificial ants which work cooperatively, building solutions by moving on the problem graph and by communicating through artificial pheromone trails mimicking real ants. One of the active research directions is the application of ACO algorithms to solve dynamic shortest path problems.(More)
Collaborative Filtering (CF) technique has proven to be promising for implementing large scale recom-mender systems but its success depends mainly on locating similar neighbors. Due to data sparsity of the user–item rating matrix, the process of finding similar neighbors does not often succeed. In addition to this, it also suffers from the new user (cold(More)
Multimodal Biometrics is the usage of multiple biometric indicators by personal identification systems for identifying individuals. It is applied to secure and authenticate the biometric data, enhance accuracy of recognition and reduce bandwidth. This paper presents a robust multimodal biometric image watermarking scheme using Particle Swarm Optimization(More)
Explosive growth of data on the web demand techniques, which would enable the user to access desired information. In Information retrieval Document Classification is prerequisite. In practice many classification techniques were and are in use. Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) is an approach which represents documents based on the frequency(More)