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Recent studies have extended our knowledge regarding the contents of mammalian cortical granules (CG) and their function in postfertilization events. Cytochemical staining has demonstrated the presence of carbohydrates within mammalian CG, and lectin-binding studies have shown that these carbohydrates include alpha-D-mannose, alpha-D-GalNAc, and galactose(More)
Extracellular matrices (ECM) present around unfertilized and fertilized mammalian oocytes were studied ultrastructurally in samples prepared in the presence of ruthenium red to facilitate stabilization of extracellular materials. Unfertilized mouse, hamster, and human oocytes have an ECM comprising granules and filaments in their perivitelline spaces (PVS).(More)
The structure, distribution and composition of the extracellular matrix present around the human oocyte and in the cumulus was examined following fixation in the presence of ruthenium red. An extracellular matrix comprising granules and filaments is present in the cumulus layer, in the corona radiata, in the outer pores of the zona pellucida and in the(More)
A triple-stain technique has been developed to score normal acrosome-reacted human sperm in fixed smears. Live and dead sperm are first differentiated using the vital stain trypan blue. Sperm are then fixed in glutaraldehyde, dried onto slides, and the postacrosomal region and acrosome are differentiated using Bismark brown and Rose Bengal. Slides are(More)
All vertebrates have an egg shell that surrounds ovulated eggs and plays critical roles in gamete recognition. This extracellular matrix is known as the zona pellucida in eutherian mammals and consists of three glycoproteins, ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3 in the mouse. To investigate the role of ZP1 in fertilization and early development, we have used targeted(More)
Mammalian cortical granules contain two polypeptides (p62 and p56) that are incorporated into the cortical granule envelope after fertilization and function in cleavage of the zygote and the preimplantation blastomeres. Since the echinoderm hyaline layer and mammalian cortical granule envelope are analogous, and since the hyaline layer protein, hyalin,(More)
Epidemiological data support a correlation between smoking and increased incidence of ectopic pregnancy, yet the causal mechanism responsible for this relationship is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of solutions containing dissolved mainstream (MS) or sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke on ciliary beat frequencies (CBF) in explants(More)
Fertilization in mammals requires the successful completion of many steps, starting with the transport of gametes in the reproductive tract and ending with sperm-egg membrane fusion. In this minireview, we focus on three adhesion steps in this multistep process. The first is oocyte "pick-up," in which the degree of adhesion between the extracellular matrix(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine if inhalation of mainstream (MS) or sidestream (SS) smoke affects the reproductive organs of female hamsters. Females inhaled smoke from one or two cigarettes twice per day for 30 d prior to mating using a smoking machine equipped for nose breathing. Serum cotinine levels were within the ranges found in active and(More)
In a prior study on electronic cigarette (EC) refill fluids, Cinnamon Ceylon was the most cytotoxic of 36 products tested. The purpose of the current study was to determine if high cytotoxicity is a general feature of cinnamon-flavored EC refill fluids and to identify the toxicant(s) in Cinnamon Ceylon. Eight cinnamon-flavored refill fluids, which were(More)