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Recent studies have extended our knowledge regarding the contents of mammalian cortical granules (CG) and their function in postfertilization events. Cytochemical staining has demonstrated the presence of carbohydrates within mammalian CG, and lectin-binding studies have shown that these carbohydrates include alpha-D-mannose, alpha-D-GalNAc, and galactose(More)
The structure, distribution and composition of the extracellular matrix present around the human oocyte and in the cumulus was examined following fixation in the presence of ruthenium red. An extracellular matrix comprising granules and filaments is present in the cumulus layer, in the corona radiata, in the outer pores of the zona pellucida and in the(More)
Extracellular matrices (ECM) present around unfertilized and fertilized mammalian oocytes were studied ultrastructurally in samples prepared in the presence of ruthenium red to facilitate stabilization of extracellular materials. Unfertilized mouse, hamster, and human oocytes have an ECM comprising granules and filaments in their perivitelline spaces (PVS).(More)
All vertebrates have an egg shell that surrounds ovulated eggs and plays critical roles in gamete recognition. This extracellular matrix is known as the zona pellucida in eutherian mammals and consists of three glycoproteins, ZP1, ZP2 and ZP3 in the mouse. To investigate the role of ZP1 in fertilization and early development, we have used targeted(More)
Fertilization in mammals requires the successful completion of many steps, starting with the transport of gametes in the reproductive tract and ending with sperm-egg membrane fusion. In this minireview, we focus on three adhesion steps in this multistep process. The first is oocyte "pick-up," in which the degree of adhesion between the extracellular matrix(More)
Mammalian cortical granules contain two polypeptides (p62 and p56) that are incorporated into the cortical granule envelope after fertilization and function in cleavage of the zygote and the preimplantation blastomeres. Since the echinoderm hyaline layer and mammalian cortical granule envelope are analogous, and since the hyaline layer protein, hyalin,(More)
A triple-stain technique has been developed to score normal acrosome-reacted human sperm in fixed smears. Live and dead sperm are first differentiated using the vital stain trypan blue. Sperm are then fixed in glutaraldehyde, dried onto slides, and the postacrosomal region and acrosome are differentiated using Bismark brown and Rose Bengal. Slides are(More)
The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of acute exposure to mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke solutions on oocyte cumulus complex pick-up rate in explants of hamster oviducts using a newly developed in vitro assay. Experiments were performed in handmade perfusion chambers using infundibula from hamster oviducts and oocyte cumulus(More)
Epidemiological data support a correlation between smoking and increased incidence of ectopic pregnancy, yet the causal mechanism responsible for this relationship is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of solutions containing dissolved mainstream (MS) or sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke on ciliary beat frequencies (CBF) in explants(More)
Previously, we showed that pyridines and pyrazines in cigarette smoke inhibit oviductal functioning in vitro in nanomolar and picomolar doses. The purpose of this study was to determine the lowest observable adverse effect levels (LOAELs) of phenols, quinolines, indoles, benzene, and 2-cyclopenten-1-ones found in mainstream smoke solutions on ciliary beat(More)