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Fertilization in mammals requires the successful completion of many steps, starting with the transport of gametes in the reproductive tract and ending with sperm-egg membrane fusion. In this minireview, we focus on three adhesion steps in this multistep process. The first is oocyte "pick-up," in which the degree of adhesion between the extracellular matrix(More)
Extracellular matrices (ECM) present around unfertilized and fertilized mammalian oocytes were studied ultrastructurally in samples prepared in the presence of ruthenium red to facilitate stabilization of extracellular materials. Unfertilized mouse, hamster, and human oocytes have an ECM comprising granules and filaments in their perivitelline spaces (PVS).(More)
Mammalian cortical granules contain two polypeptides (p62 and p56) that are incorporated into the cortical granule envelope after fertilization and function in cleavage of the zygote and the preimplantation blastomeres. Since the echinoderm hyaline layer and mammalian cortical granule envelope are analogous, and since the hyaline layer protein, hyalin,(More)
The purpose of this study was to identify specific cortical granule protein(s) that form the cortical granule envelope and examine their role(s) in fertilization and preimplantation development. The polyclonal antibody A-BL2 was used to show that the cortical granules of mice, rats, hamsters, cows, and pigs contain a pair of proteins designated p62/p56.(More)
Fertilized mouse eggs regulate their size principally by accumulating glycine as an intracellular osmolyte using the GLYT1 (SLC6A9) transporter, a mechanism of cell volume homeostasis apparently unique to early embryos before the morula stage. However, nothing was known of cell volume regulation in oocytes before fertilization. We show here that GLYT1 is(More)
The purpose of this study was to characterize the structure of the vestments surrounding unfertilized and cortical granule-reacted oocytes from a marsupial, the grey short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica and to determine if a cortical granule envelope (CGE) forms in the perivitelline space (PVS) following the cortical reaction. Unfertilized oocytes(More)
— This paper proposes an automated detection method with simple algorithm for detecting human embryonic stem cell (hESC) regions in phase contrast images. The algorithm uses both the spatial information as well as the intensity distribution for cell region detection. The method is modeled as a mixture of two Gaussians; hESC and substrate regions. The paper(More)
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that components in mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke inhibit growth and angiogenesis using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Varying doses of whole or gas-phase MS and SS smoke solutions were placed on day 5 CAMs, and their effects on angiogenesis were evaluated on day 6. All(More)
In this paper, we propose an automatic method to detect human embryonic stem cell regions. The proposed method utilizes the K-means algorithm with weighted entropy. As in phase contrast images the cell regions have high intensity variation, they usually yield higher entropy values than the substrate regions which have less intensity variation. Thus, the(More)
We hypothesized that reactive carbonyls generated from smoke exposure cause increased arterial low-density lipoprotein (LDL) accumulation and endothelial layer permeability. In addition, we hypothesized that estrogen supplementation was protective against chronic environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure to the artery wall. Quantitative fluorescence(More)