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Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were previously considered to only affect high-income countries. However, they now account for a very large burden in terms of both mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), although little is known about the impact these diseases have on households in these countries. In this paper, we present a(More)
OBJECTIVE Rwanda has expanded mutual health insurance considerably in recent years, which has a great potential for making health services more accessible. In this paper, we examine the effect of mutual health insurance (MHI) on utilization of health services and financial risk protection. METHODS We used data from a nationally representative survey from(More)
In Viet Nam, household direct out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure as a share of the total health expenditure has been always high, ranging from 50% to 70%. The high share of OOP expenditure has been linked to different inequity problems such as catastrophic health expenditure (households must reduce their expenditure on other necessities) and(More)
OBJECTIVE Tanzania has a policy of free provision of inpatient care for young children in order to promote timely access and thus reduce the current levels of mortality. However, little is known about out-of-pocket costs that may be incurred by families in seeking care for sick children. We conducted this study to identify the magnitude of these costs in(More)
Financial risk protection is a key component of universal health coverage (UHC), which is defined as access to all needed quality health services without financial hardship. As part of the PLOS Medicine Collection on measurement of UHC, the aim of this paper is to examine and to compare and contrast existing measures of financial risk protection. The paper(More)
Objective: Measurement errors have been a persistent concern in survey research. In this study we investigate the current evidence on measurement errors in self-reported household expenditure and health expenditure. Methodology: We performed a review of the literature on measurement error in healthcare-related surveys. A Pubmed-search was performed and in(More)
This paper is aimed at studying the Time Minimizing Transportation Problem with Fractional Bottleneck Objective Function (TMTP-FBOF). TMTP-FBOF is related to a Lexicographic Fractional Time Minimizing Transportation Problem (LFTMTP), which will be solved by a lexicographic primal code. An algorithm is also developed to determine an initial efficient basic(More)
OBJECTIVE To document the patterns of health service utilization and health payments at public and private facilities across countries. METHOD We used data from the World Health Surveys from 39 low- and low-middle income countries to examine differences between public and private sectors. Utilization of outpatient and inpatient services, out-of-pocket(More)
There has been recent controversy about whether aid directed specifically to health has caused recipient governments to reallocate their own funds to non-health areas. At the same time, general budget support (GBS) has been increasing. GBS allows governments to set their own priorities, but little is known about how these additional resources are(More)
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps(More)