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Small RNA-mediated gene regulation during development causes long-lasting changes in cellular phenotypes. To determine whether small RNAs of the adult brain can regulate memory storage, a process that requires stable and long-lasting changes in the functional state of neurons, we generated small RNA libraries from the Aplysia CNS. In these libraries, we(More)
Memory storage and memory-related synaptic plasticity rely on precise spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression. To explore the role of small regulatory RNAs in learning-related synaptic plasticity, we carried out massive parallel sequencing to profile the small RNAs of Aplysia californica. We identified 170 distinct miRNAs, 13 of which were novel and(More)
Top-down prefrontal cortex inputs to the hippocampus have been hypothesized to be important in memory consolidation, retrieval, and the pathophysiology of major psychiatric diseases; however, no such direct projections have been identified and functionally described. Here we report the discovery of a monosynaptic prefrontal cortex (predominantly anterior(More)
In recently developed approaches for high-resolution imaging within intact tissue, molecular characterization over large volumes has been largely restricted to labeling of proteins. But volumetric nucleic acid labeling may represent a far greater scientific and clinical opportunity, enabling detection of not only diverse coding RNA variants but also(More)
In recent years, a greater understanding has emerged of the role epigenetic mechanisms play in the brain, not only during development, but also in mature neurons involved in long-term memory. The identification of spatially and temporally tuned epigenetic modification of genetic loci during memory storage has revealed the remarkably input-responsive,(More)
Here we describe a strategy designed to identify RNAs that are actively transported to synapses during learning. Our approach is based on the characterization of RNA transport complexes carried by molecular motor kinesin. Using this strategy in Aplysia, we have identified 5,657 unique sequences consisting of both coding and noncoding RNAs from the CNS.(More)
The maintenance phase of memory-related long-term facilitation (LTF) of synapses between sensory and motor neurons of the gill-withdrawal reflex of Aplysia depends on a serotonin (5-HT)-triggered presynaptic upregulation of CPEB, a functional prion that regulates local protein synthesis at the synapse. The mechanisms whereby serotonin regulates CPEB levels(More)
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), long thought to be restricted to germline, have recently been discovered in neurons of Aplysia, with a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression underlying long-term memory. We here ask whether piwi/piRNAs are also expressed and have functional roles in the mammalian brain. Large-scale RNA sequencing and subsequent(More)
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