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Various neuroimaging measures are being evaluated for tracking Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression in therapeutic trials, including measures of structural brain change based on repeated scanning of patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods to compute brain change must be robust to scan quality. Biases may arise if any scans are thrown out, as(More)
Leptin, a hormone produced by body fat tissue, acts on hypothalamic receptors in the brain to regulate appetite and energy expenditure, and on neurons in the arcuate nucleus to signal that an individual has had enough to eat. Leptin enters the central nervous system at levels that depend on an individual's body fat. Obese people, on average, show greater(More)
We implemented least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression to evaluate gene effects in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of brain images, using an MRI-derived temporal lobe volume measure from 729 subjects scanned as part of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Sparse groups of SNPs in individual genes were(More)
Aberrant connectivity is implicated in many neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. However, other than a few disease-associated candidate genes, we know little about the degree to which genetics play a role in the brain networks; we know even less about specific genes that influence brain connections. Twin(More)
Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural magnetic resonance(More)
This paper responds to Thompson and Holland (2011), who challenged our tensor-based morphometry (TBM) method for estimating rates of brain changes in serial MRI from 431 subjects scanned every 6 months, for 2 years. Thompson and Holland noted an unexplained jump in our atrophy rate estimates: an offset between 0 and 6 months that may bias clinical trial(More)
Designers of clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are actively considering structural and functional neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid and genetic biomarkers to reduce the sample sizes needed to detect therapeutic effects. Genetic pre-selection, however, has been limited to Apolipoprotein E (ApoE). Recently(More)
Computational anatomy methods are now widely used in clinical neuroimaging to map the profile of disease effects on the brain and its clinical correlates. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), many research groups have modeled localized changes in hippocampal and lateral ventricular surfaces, to provide candidate biomarkers of disease progression for drug trials. We(More)
Elevated homocysteine levels are a known risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and vascular disorders. Here we applied tensor-based morphometry to brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of 732 elderly individuals from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study, to determine associations between homocysteine and brain atrophy. Those with higher(More)
We propose a new method to maximize biomarker efficiency for detecting anatomical change over time in serial MRI. Drug trials using neuroimaging become prohibitively costly if vast numbers of subjects must be assessed, so it is vital to develop efficient measures of brain change. A popular measure of efficiency is the minimal sample size (n80) needed to(More)