Prithiva Chanmugam

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Human subjects consuming fish oil showed a significant suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in blood monocytes when stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an agonist for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Results with a murine monocytic cell line (RAW 264.7) stably transfected with COX-2 promoter reporter gene also demonstrated that(More)
Two forms of cyclooxygenase are known to be present in eukaryotic organisms: a cyclooxygenase (COX-1) first purified from ram seminal vesicles encoded by a 2.8-kilobase mRNA, and a newly discovered mitogen-inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) encoded by a 4-kilobase mRNA. Expression of these two forms of the enzyme in rat alveolar macrophages stimulated with(More)
Two isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX) have been identified in eukaryotic cells: COX-1 encoded by a 2.8-kb mRNA, and a mitogen-inducible COX-2 encoded by a 4-kb mRNA. We have cloned the COX-1 and COX-2 cDNAs from the cDNA library constructed from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rat peritoneal macrophages. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that COX-1(More)
Cyclo-oxygenase (COX) activity and its level of expression, the release of arachidonic acid (AA), and the accumulation of prostaglandins (PGs) were determined in isolated rat pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) exposed to aqueous cigarette tar (ACT) extracts. COX activity increased 3-fold above the initial activity within 2 h of incubation with ACT(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of linolenic acid [18:3(n-3)], compared with the long-chain (n-3) fatty acids in fish oil, in suppressing arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)] metabolism in rat testis. Six groups of rats were fed three levels of 18:3(n-3) or fish oil, and the fatty acid composition of testis parenchyma lipids and(More)
The objectives of this study were to determine changes in fat and energy intakes in the United States between 1989-1991 and 1994-1996, and to examine the implications of expressing fat intake in grams vs as a percent of total energy intake. The source of data was the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals. The results suggest that intake of energy(More)
The effect of zinc deficiency on prostaglandin synthesis in rat testes was determined by feeding three groups of rats egg white-based semipurified diets. One group (ZD) was fed a zinc-deficient diet and two control groups were pair-fed (PF) or fed ad libitum (AL) a zinc-sufficient diet. The concentration (nanograms/gram) of the prostacyclin metabolite,(More)
In order to determine the minimal amount of dietary 9-trans,12-trans-linoleate which can decrease endoperoxide metabolites synthesized and their precursor in rat platelets, graded amounts (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5%) of thetrans-linoleate were fed to rats with a constant amount of all-cis-linoleate (2.5%) for 12 weeks. Arachidonic acid levels in platelet(More)
To determine if low levels of docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 omega 6), observed in the testis lipids of zinc-deficient rats, are related to some of the symptoms of zinc deficiency in rat testes, four groups of rats were fed egg white- and corn oil (CO)-based semipurified diets. One group was fed a zinc-deficient diet (ZDCO) and a control group was pair-fed a(More)
Rats were fed graded amounts of purified 18:3n-3 or fish oil concentrate in the presence of a constant amount of 18:2n-6 to evaluate the ability of 18:3n-3 compared with longer-chain n-3 fatty acids to inhibit 20:4n-6 metabolism in platelets and lungs. Dietary 18:3n-3 at a ratio of 0.28 (n-3 to n-6 fatty acids) suppressed levels of 20:4n-6 in lung and(More)