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We examined whether consciously undetected fear signals engage a collateral brainstem pathway to the amygdala and prefrontal cortex in the intact human brain, using functional neuroimaging. 'Blindsight' lesion patients can respond to visual fear signals independently from conscious experience, suggesting that these signals reach the amygdala via a direct(More)
BACKGROUND Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), approximately half of patients do not respond to CBT. No studies have investigated the capacity for neural responses during fear processing to predict treatment response in PTSD. METHOD Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)(More)
Effective perception of fear signals is crucial for human survival and the importance of the amygdala in this process is well documented. Animal, lesion and neuroimaging studies indicate that incoming sensory signals of fear travel from thalamus to amygdala via two neural pathways: a direct subcortical route and an indirect pathway via the sensory cortex.(More)
Lithium has been used for over half a century for the treatment of bipolar disorder as the archetypal mood stabilizer, and has a wealth of empirical evidence supporting its efficacy in this role. Despite this, the specific mechanisms by which lithium exerts its mood-stabilizing effects are not well understood. Given the inherently complex nature of the(More)
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may develop from impaired extinction of conditioned fear responses. Exposure-based treatment of PTSD is thought to facilitate extinction learning (Charney, 2004). Fear extinction is mediated by inhibitory control of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) over amygdala-based fear processes neuroimaging studies of PTSD(More)
Many of the same regions of the human brain are activated during conscious attention to signals of fear and in the absence of awareness for these signals. The neural mechanisms that dissociate level of awareness from activation in these regions remain unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging with connectivity analysis in healthy human subjects,(More)
BACKGROUND Schizophrenia patients show reduced neural activity, relative to controls, in the amygdala and its projection to the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in response to fear perception. In this study we tested the hypothesis that schizophrenia is characterized by abnormal functional connectivity in the amygdala network underlying fear perception. (More)
The study of dynamic interdependences between brain regions is currently a very active research field. For any connectivity study, it is important to determine whether correlations between two selected brain regions are statistically significant or only chance effects due to non-specific correlations present throughout the data. In this report, we present a(More)
Human neuroimaging studies implicate the amygdala, medial prefrontal and somatosensory-related cortices as key neural components in the perception of facial fear signals. Yet, their temporal sequence and interaction with autonomic arousal is not known. We used simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and skin conductance response (SCR)(More)
Bipolar disorder (BD) and borderline personality (BPD) disorder share clinical features such as emotional lability and poor interpersonal functioning but the course of illness and treatment differs in these groups, which suggests that the underlying neurobiology of BD and BPD is likely to be different. Understanding the neural mechanisms behind the(More)