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We examined whether consciously undetected fear signals engage a collateral brainstem pathway to the amygdala and prefrontal cortex in the intact human brain, using functional neuroimaging. 'Blindsight' lesion patients can respond to visual fear signals independently from conscious experience, suggesting that these signals reach the amygdala via a direct(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors investigated impaired differentiation of limbic-prefrontal systems by autonomic arousal in schizophrenia. It was predicted that paranoid patients would be distinguished by a disjunction of hyperarousal but reduced amygdala and medial prefrontal activity relative to both healthy comparison subjects and patients with nonparanoid(More)
Effective perception of fear signals is crucial for human survival and the importance of the amygdala in this process is well documented. Animal, lesion and neuroimaging studies indicate that incoming sensory signals of fear travel from thalamus to amygdala via two neural pathways: a direct subcortical route and an indirect pathway via the sensory cortex.(More)
BACKGROUND Although cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), approximately half of patients do not respond to CBT. No studies have investigated the capacity for neural responses during fear processing to predict treatment response in PTSD. METHOD Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)(More)
Many of the same regions of the human brain are activated during conscious attention to signals of fear and in the absence of awareness for these signals. The neural mechanisms that dissociate level of awareness from activation in these regions remain unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging with connectivity analysis in healthy human subjects,(More)
BACKGROUND Schizophrenia patients show reduced neural activity, relative to controls, in the amygdala and its projection to the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in response to fear perception. In this study we tested the hypothesis that schizophrenia is characterized by abnormal functional connectivity in the amygdala network underlying fear perception. (More)
The study of dynamic interdependences between brain regions is currently a very active research field. For any connectivity study, it is important to determine whether correlations between two selected brain regions are statistically significant or only chance effects due to non-specific correlations present throughout the data. In this report, we present a(More)
Schizophrenia patients show a disconnection in amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex and autonomic arousal systems for processing fear. Concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI] and skin conductance recording were used to determine whether these disturbances are specific to fear, or present in response to other signals of danger. We also examined(More)
It is not known how the brain and autonomic systems interact during perception of facial signals of danger. We recorded blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity using fMRI and simultaneous skin conductance measures of autonomic arousal in healthy subjects. Distinct response profiles were elicited for fear (enhanced arousal with amygdala activity), anger(More)
INTRODUCTION Despite more that 60 years of clinical experience, the effective use of lithium for the treatment of mood disorder, in particular bipolarity, is in danger of becoming obsolete. In part, this is because of exaggerated fears surrounding lithium toxicity, acute and long-term tolerability and the encumbrance of life-long plasma monitoring. Recent(More)