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Bone and limb growth velocity ratios were studied in patients undergoing lengthening for unilateral congenital shortening of the lower limb. In 15 patients before lengthening, the length ratio (LR) between the normal and short sides remained constant with age. Consequently, the growth velocity ratio (GVR) between the normal and short sides also remained… (More)
We propose a method for identifying image spam by training an artificial neural network. A detailed process for preprocessing spam image files is given, followed by a description on how to train an artificial neural network to distinguish between ham and spam. Finally, we exercise the trained network by testing it against unknown images.