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BACKGROUND Early diagnosis of dengue can assist patient triage and management and prevent unnecessary treatments and interventions. Commercially available assays that detect the dengue virus protein NS1 in the plasma/serum of patients offers the possibility of early and rapid diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS The sensitivity and specificity of the(More)
OBJECTIVE Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among the general population of the Philippines using data sources outside of the limited existing active surveillance network. METHODS We analysed aggregate HIV, HBV and HCV test results for hospital-based blood donors (BDs) and overseas Filipino worker candidates (OFWCs) that had been(More)
Since the discovery in the Philippines of the first AIDS case in 1984, several subtypes of HIV-1 have been discovered. From the persons diagnosed in the early 1980s only subtype B was found and thereafter other subtypes, C, D, E, and F were also identified although HIV was not particularly prevalent at that time. In this paper, we determine whether the(More)
The prevalence study and the characterization of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was carried out in the Philippines and the sequence determination of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR)-Core and the NS5B regions of HCV was carried out in this study. An HCV strain (SE-03-07-1689) collected in Metro Manila, Philippines, belonged to discordant subtypes, 2b and 1b in(More)
From the trends of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics in South and Southeast Asia, it was postulated that an HIV epidemic would start as a blood-borne infection among injecting-drug users in the Philippines. In 2002, 560 individuals were recruited in Metro Cebu, Philippines and tested for HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV)(More)
BACKGROUND Dengue virus (DENV) infection remains a major public health burden worldwide. Soluble mediators may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of acute DENV infection. Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a soluble β-galactoside-binding lectin, with multiple immunoregulatory and inflammatory properties. OBJECTIVE To investigate plasma Gal-9 levels as a(More)
The aim of this study was to describe and document the first case of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) in the Philippines by using serological and molecular techniques and to compare the diversity of this strain to that of strains from other countries. With the introduction of HIV-2 into the country and the presence of diversified strains of(More)
In order to prevent cervical cancer, vaccines against human papilloma virus types 16 (HPV-16) and 18 (HPV-18) have been implemented worldwide. However, the HPV types that cause cancer can differ according to geographical area and ethnicity. In this new era of the HPV vaccine, it is important to elucidate the prevalent HPV types in each area. Therefore, the(More)
Anti-tubercular-glycolipid-IgG (TBGL-IgG) and -IgA (TBGL-IgA) antibodies, and the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT) were compared in healthcare workers (HCWs, n = 31) and asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-carriers (HIV-AC, n = 56) in Manila. In HCWs, 48%, 51%, and 19% were positive in QFT, TBGL-IgG, and -IgA, respectively. The TBGL-IgG positivity was(More)
From 2002 to 2007, 1,590 individuals were enrolled in an active surveillance program conducted in Metro Cebu, Philippines, where the anti-HCV-positive rate was significantly and constantly high among injecting drug users (83%, 793/960; 71-88%), especially among those living in downtown (89%, 683/770; 87-100%), despite the extremely low percentage of(More)