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INTRODUCTION Low plasma vitamin E level in children with sickle cell anaemia has been related to elevated level of irreversibly sickled cells which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of painful crisis. In adult patients supplementation with alpha-tocopherol has been shown to reduce irreversibly sickled cell count. In-addition, vitamin E supplementation(More)
In this paper we study the properties of protocol independent multicast (PIM) in non-strictly hierarchical network environments. In particular, we investigate the cost (overhead) behaviour of the PIM protocols i.e., sparse mode (PIM-SM), dense mode with flood and prune mechanism (PIM-DMFP), dense mode with state refresh (PIM-DMSR), and source specific(More)
This paper provides analytical tools to assess the improvements of existing, modified or entirely new multicast protocols at an early stage of design. In particular, we investigate the general properties of sparse mode (SM) and dense mode (DM) protocols and their variants. Specifically, we quantify the performance of these protocols in a ring topology(More)
The introduction electronic commerce has created new financial needs that in many cases cannot be effectively fulfilled by the traditional payment systems. The success of electronic commerce business depends on the credibility of the available electronic payment systems. Electronic cash payment is one electronic payment systems developed to settle payments(More)
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