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Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is the principal pest of maize in tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas. Larvae of this species are susceptible to a nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) which has attracted interest as a potential biocontrol agent. Four strains of NPV isolated from infected S. frugiperda larvae in the United(More)
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium that synthesizes parasporal crystalline inclusions containing Cry and Cyt proteins, some of which are toxic against a wide range of insect orders, nematodes and human-cancer cells. These toxins have been successfully used as bioinsecticides against caterpillars, beetles, and flies,(More)
Thirteen of the most common lepidopteran-specific Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis have been tested for their efficacy against newly hatched larvae of two populations of the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana. At a concentration of 100 microg of toxin per milliliter of artificial diet, six Cry toxins (Cry1Ca, Cry1Ea, Cry1Fa, Cry1Ja, Cry2Aa, and Cry2Ab)(More)
A new Bacillus thuringiensis strain belonging to the serovar aizawai was isolated from a dead larva of the lepidopteran Mythimna loreyi collected in a corn crop in Spain during a natural epizootic. This strain, which was named Leapi01, was compared with the kurstaki and aizawai strains isolated from Dipel(R) and Xentari(R), by electron microscopy, SDS-PAGE,(More)
AIMS Two Bacillus thuringiensis collections from terrestrial and aquatic habitats were compared in order to study the possible interrelationships between habitat and biological characteristics (serovar, cry genes content and toxicity). METHODS AND RESULTS Bacillus thuringiensis strains were characterized by serology, PCR, and one-dose treatment against(More)
A Nicaraguan field isolate (SfNIC) of Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus was purified by plaque assay on Sf9 cells. Nine distinct genotypes, A to I, were identified by their restriction endonuclease profiles. Variant SfNIC-B was selected as the standard because its restriction profile corresponded to that of the wild-type isolate. Physical maps were(More)
The genome of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) was inserted into a bacmid (Sfbac) and used to produce a mutant lacking open reading frame 29 (Sf29null). Sf29null bacmid DNA was able to generate an infection in S. frugiperda. Approximately six times less DNA was present in occlusion bodies (OBs) produced by the Sf29null bacmid in(More)
Samples collected from aquatic environments from Spain were analyzed for the occurrence and dipteran toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis. From a total of 41 samples, 122 isolates were obtained, yielding a B. thuringiensis index of 0.22. Isolates were assigned to 13 different serovars, with serovar thuringiensis (serotype H1) the most frequently found.(More)
Bacillus thuringiensis was isolated from 301 out of 1,005 samples collected in Spain from agricultural and non-cultivated soils, dust from stored products, and dead insects. Based on the production of parasporal crystals, 1,401 isolates were identified as B. thuringiensis after examining 11,982 B. thuringiensis-like colonies. We found a greater presence of(More)