Primitivo Caballero

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Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium that synthesizes parasporal crystalline inclusions containing Cry and Cyt proteins, some of which are toxic against a wide range of insect orders, nematodes and human-cancer cells. These toxins have been successfully used as bioinsecticides against caterpillars, beetles, and flies,(More)
Bacillus thuringiensis was isolated from 301 out of 1,005 samples collected in Spain from agricultural and non-cultivated soils, dust from stored products, and dead insects. Based on the production of parasporal crystals, 1,401 isolates were identified as B. thuringiensis after examining 11,982 B. thuringiensis-like colonies. We found a greater presence of(More)
Defective viruses lack genes essential for survival but they can co-infect with complete virus genotypes and use gene products from the complete genotype for their replication and transmission. As such, they are detrimental to the fitness of complete genotypes. Here, we describe a mutualistic interaction between genotypes of an insect baculovirus(More)
A new Bacillus thuringiensis strain belonging to the serovar aizawai was isolated from a dead larva of the lepidopteran Mythimna loreyi collected in a corn crop in Spain during a natural epizootic. This strain, which was named Leapi01, was compared with the kurstaki and aizawai strains isolated from Dipel(R) and Xentari(R), by electron microscopy, SDS-PAGE,(More)
A Nicaraguan field isolate (SfNIC) of Spodoptera frugiperda nucleopolyhedrovirus was purified by plaque assay on Sf9 cells. Nine distinct genotypes, A to I, were identified by their restriction endonuclease profiles. Variant SfNIC-B was selected as the standard because its restriction profile corresponded to that of the wild-type isolate. Physical maps were(More)
Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is the principal pest of maize in tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas. Larvae of this species are susceptible to a nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) which has attracted interest as a potential biocontrol agent. Four strains of NPV isolated from infected S. frugiperda larvae in the United(More)
Key virus traits such as virulence and transmission strategies rely on genetic variation that results in functional changes in the interactions between hosts and viruses. Here, comparative genomic analyses of seven isolates of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) with differing phenotypes were employed to pinpoint candidate genes that(More)
The most notable characteristic of Bacillus thuringiensis is its ability to produce insecticidal proteins. More than 300 different proteins have been described with specific activity against insect species. We report the molecular and insecticidal characterization of a novel cry gene encoding a protein of the Cry1I group with toxic activity towards insects(More)
The type strain Bacillus thuringiensis var. bolivia (serotype H63), isolated from the Bolivian high valleys, has been characterized at different levels. Its parasporal crystal has an unusual shape and it is composed of a protein of 155 kDa which shows two bands of 75 and 80 kDa after activation. Analysis by PCR shows the presence of cry1 genes, and(More)