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Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium that synthesizes parasporal crystalline inclusions containing Cry and Cyt proteins, some of which are toxic against a wide range of insect orders, nematodes and human-cancer cells. These toxins have been successfully used as bioinsecticides against caterpillars, beetles, and flies,(More)
Stilbene-derived optical brighteners greatly enhance the infectivity of a number of baculoviruses. This technology has been patented for use with insect pathogenic viruses in the United States and Canada. A baculovirus is currently being tested for its potential as a biological insecticide of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the principal(More)
In this study we examined interactions between two solitary endoparasitoids, the braconid Chelonus insu-laris and the ichneumonid Campoletis sonorensis, and a multiple-enveloped nucleopolyhedrovirus infecting Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. We examined whether ovipositing females minimize interference by discriminating amongst hosts and examined the outcome(More)
Genotypic and phenotypic variation of SeMNPV was examined in seven isolates of SeMNPV originating from occlusion body (OB) populations in the soil of greenhouses in Spain. Semi-quantitative PCR indicated that some of the isolates were composed of a single dominant genotype, whereas other isolates were composed of two or three genotypes in equal proportions.(More)
The eYcacy of optical brightener formulations of a native Spanish isolate of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeM-NPV) was determined for control of S. exigua on greenhouse grown sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in Almeria, Spain. In laboratory bioassays involving diet surface contamination, the 50% lethal concentration in fourth instars was(More)
Key virus traits such as virulence and transmission strategies rely on genetic variation that results in functional changes in the interactions between hosts and viruses. Here, comparative genomic analyses of seven isolates of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) with differing phenotypes were employed to pinpoint candidate genes that(More)
A Nicaraguan isolate of Spodoptera frugiperda multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) is undergoing field trials for control of this pest in the Americas. This isolate is composed of multiple genotypes, some of which are deletion mutants. Identification of the genetic changes in deleted genotypes cannot be accomplished without the construction of a(More)
The multicapsid nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) of Spodoptera exigua (SeMNPV), Spodoptera frugiperda (SfMNPV), and Spodoptera littoralis (SpliNPV) are genetically similar (78 % similarity) but differ in their degree of host specificity. Infection by each of the three NPVs in these three Spodoptera host species was determined by oral inoculation of larvae with(More)
In this work, we report the genome sequencing of two Bacillus thuringiensis strains using Illumina next-generation sequencing technology (NGS). Strain Hu4-2, toxic to many lepidopteran pest species and to some mosquitoes, encoded genes for two insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins, cry1Ia and cry9Ea, and a vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) gene, vip3Ca2.(More)