Primavera Alessandra Spagnolo

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Extensive preclinical data implicate corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), acting through its CRH1 receptor, in stress- and dependence-induced alcohol seeking. We evaluated pexacerfont, an orally available, brain penetrant CRH1 antagonist for its ability to suppress stress-induced alcohol craving and brain responses in treatment seeking alcohol-dependent(More)
In Italy, little is known about the problems related to alcohol drinking during pregnancy. In this paper, the Italian literature about this subject is briefly reviewed. This first Italian experience of a field study, aimed to the assessment of the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in an area in the Rome(More)
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a large and rapidly increasing public health problem worldwide. Aside the full-blown FAS, multiple terms are used to describe the continuum of effects that result from prenatal exposure to alcohol, including the whole fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The revised Institute of Medicine (IOM) Diagnostic Classification(More)
Decades of experimentation with a variety of pharmacological treatments have identified some effective therapies for heroin addiction but not for cocaine addiction. This may be due, at least in part, to our incomplete understanding of the factors involved in the differential vulnerability to these addictions, which are often considered mere variations of(More)
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcoholism are frequently comorbid, suggesting the possibility of overlapping neural substrates. The neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor for substance P (SP) has been implicated in both stress- and alcohol-related behaviors. The NK1 antagonist aprepitant, clinically available as a treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea,(More)
Drug abuse is often seen as a unitary phenomenon, partly as a result of the discovery over the past three decades of shared mechanisms of action for addictive substances. Yet the pattern of drug taking is often very different from drug to drug. This is particularly evident in the case of 'club drugs', such as ketamine. Although the number of ketamine(More)
BACKGROUND Drug abuse is rarely limited to a single substance; polydrug use is the norm rather than the exception. In many cases, the misuse of potentially psychoactive substances can lead to serious intoxications and results in addictive behavior. CASE DESCRIPTION A 22-year-old heroin-addicted woman presented in our clinic reporting a 2-year history of(More)
BACKGROUND Positively reinforcing properties of alcohol are in part mediated by activation of the ventral striatum (VS). Alcohol-induced release of endogenous opioids is thought to contribute to this response. Preclinical studies show that the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) can block this cascade, but its ability to do so in treatment-seeking alcoholics(More)
The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in reward and addiction. One of the two main endocannabinoid neurotransmitters, anandamide, is metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase, an enzyme with a functional genetic polymorphism (FAAH Pro129Thr, rs324420). The Thr129 allele has been linked to problem drug and alcohol use, but the association has(More)
Addictive disorders are a major public health concern, associated with high relapse rates, significant disability and substantial mortality. Unfortunately, current interventions are only modestly effective. Preclinical studies as well as human neuroimaging studies have provided strong evidence that the observable behaviours that characterize the addiction(More)