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Problems with oak regeneration have been documented in the last 50 years at numerous sites in the Midwestern United States. We applied nuclear microsatellites to examine the demographic and fine-scale spatial genetic structure of red oaks in two old-growth stands in Indiana. Oaks in one stand have declined in numbers over the past several decades whereas(More)
Much is known regarding the structure and logic of genetic regulatory networks. Less understood is the contextual organization of promoter signals used during transcription initiation, the most pivotal stage during gene expression. Here we show that promoter networks organize spontaneously at a dimension between the 1-dimension of the DNA and 3-dimension of(More)
The language of gene expression displays topological symmetry. An important step during gene expression is the binding of transcriptional proteins to DNA promoters adjacent to a gene. Some proteins bind to many promoters in a genome, defining a regulon of genes wherein each promoter might vary in DNA sequence relative to the average consensus. Here we(More)
This article advances the prerequisite network as a means to visualize the hidden structure in an academic curriculum. Network technologies have been used for some time now in social analyses and more recently in biology in the areas of genomics and systems biology. Here I treat the curriculum as a complex system with nodes representing courses and links(More)
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