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During the past 65 million years, Alu elements have propagated to more than one million copies in primate genomes, which has resulted in the generation of a series of Alu subfamilies of different ages. Alu elements affect the genome in several ways, causing insertion mutations, recombination between elements, gene conversion and alterations in gene(More)
The complete (172,282 base pairs) nucleotide sequence of the B95-8 strain of Epstein-Barr virus has been established using the dideoxynucleotide/M13 sequencing procedure. Many RNA polymerase II promoters have been mapped and the mRNAs from these promoters have been assigned to the latent or early/late productive virus cycles. Likely protein-coding regions(More)
Alu insertion polymorphisms (polymorphisms consisting of the presence/absence of an Alu element at a particular chromosomal location) offer several advantages over other nuclear DNA polymorphisms for human evolution studies. First, they are typed by rapid, simple, PCR-based assays; second, they are stable polymorphisms-newly inserted Alu elements rarely(More)
Alu elements have amplified in primate genomes through a RNA-dependent mechanism, termed retroposition, and have reached a copy number in excess of 500,000 copies per human genome. These elements have been proposed to have a number of functions in the human genome, and have certainly had a major impact on genomic architecture. Alu elements continue to(More)
The Alu family of intersperesed repeats is comprised of ovr 500,000 members which may be divided into discrete subfamilies based upon mutations held in common between members. Distinct subfamilies of Alu sequences have amplified within the human genome in recent evolutionary history. Several individual Alu family members have amplified so recently in human(More)
A comparison of Alu sequences that comprise more recently amplified Alu subfamilies was made. There are 18 individual diagnostic mutations associated with the different subfamilies. This analysis confirmed that the formation of each subfamily can be explained by the sequential accumulation of mutations relative to the previous subfamily. Polymerase chain(More)
Short interspersed elements (SINEs) may be found in the genomes of a wide variety of mammals (Deininger and Batzer 1993). The Alu family of SINEs is one of the most successful mobile genetic elements, having arisen to a copy number in excess of 500,000 within the human genome in approximately 65 million years of primate evolution. Alu sequences are thought(More)
ID elements are short interspersed repetitive DNA elements (SINEs) which have amplified in rodent genomes via retroposition, a process involving an RNA intermediate. BC1, an abundant ID-related transcript, is transcribed from a conserved, single-copy gene in rodents. The gene encoding BC1 RNA represents one of the earliest and possibly the first(More)