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Short interspersed elements (SINEs) may be found in the genomes of a wide variety of mammals (Deininger and Batzer 1993). The Alu family of SINEs is one of the most successful mobile genetic elements, having arisen to a copy number in excess of 500,000 within the human genome in approximately 65 million years of primate evolution. Alu sequences are thought(More)
Newly isolated members of two recently propagated (young) Alu subfamilies were examined for sequence diversity and insertion polymorphism in primate genomes. The smaller subfamily (termed HS-2) is comprised of approximately 5 to 25 members, while the larger (termed Sb2) includes approximately 125 to 600 members. Individual members of these Alu subfamilies(More)
Alu elements comprise >10% of the human genome. We have used a computational biology approach to analyze the human genomic DNA sequence databases to determine the impact of gene conversion on the sequence diversity of recently integrated Alu elements and to identify Alu elements that were potentially retroposition competent. We analyzed 269 Alu Ya5 elements(More)
Alu elements undergo amplification through retroposition and integration into new locations throughout primate genomes. Over 500,000 Alu elements reside in the human genome, making the identification of newly inserted Alu repeats the genomic equivalent of finding needles in the haystack. Here, we present two complementary methods for rapid detection of(More)
The Alu family of interspersed repeats is comprised of over 500,000 members which may be divided into discrete subfamilies based upon mutations held in common between members. Distinct subfamilies of Alu sequences have amplified within the human genome in recent evolutionary history. Several individual Alu family members have amplified so recently in human(More)
Long and short interspersed elements (LINEs and SINEs) are retroelements that make up almost half of the human genome. L1 and Alu represent the most prolific human LINE and SINE families, respectively. Only a few Alu elements are able to retropose, and the factors determining their retroposition capacity are poorly understood. The data presented in this(More)
Long interspersed element-1 elements compose on average one-fifth of mammalian genomes. The expression and retrotransposition of L1 is restricted by a number of cellular mechanisms in order to limit their damage in both germ-line and somatic cells. L1 transcription is largely suppressed in most tissues, but L1 mRNA and/or proteins are still detectable in(More)
LINE-1 expression damages host DNA via insertions and endonuclease-dependent DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that are highly toxic and mutagenic. The predominant tissue of LINE-1 expression has been considered to be the germ line. We show that both full-length and processed L1 transcripts are widespread in human somatic tissues and transformed cells, with(More)
The Alu repetitive family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in primates can be subdivided into distinct subfamilies by specific diagnostic nucleotide changes. The older subfamilies are generally very abundant, while the younger subfamilies have fewer copies. Some of the youngest Alu elements are absent in the orthologous loci of nonhuman primates,(More)