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OBJECTIVE To measure the costs and estimate the cost-effectiveness of the ProTEST package of tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus (TB/HIV) interventions in primary health care facilities in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS We collected annual cost data retrospectively using ingredients-based costing in three primary care facilities and estimated the(More)
BACKGROUND The effectiveness of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) for patients with sexually transmitted infection (STI) in resource-constrained settings are of particular concern for high HIV prevalence countries like South Africa. This study evaluated whether the PITC approach increased HIV testing amongst patients with a new episode of(More)
BACKGROUND In South Africa the need to integrate HIV, TB and STI programmes has been recognised at a policy and organisation level; the challenge is now one of translating policies into relevant actions and monitoring implementation to ensure that the anticipated benefits of integration are achieved. In this research, set in public primary care services in(More)
SETTING All designated microscopy centres (DMCs) in Fatehgarh Sahib District, Punjab, India. OBJECTIVE To study the association of distance (physical access) to DMCs with loss to follow-up (LTFU) of presumptive tuberculosis (TB) cases while undergoing diagnostic sputum examination and failure to initiate treatment among smear-positive TB patients after(More)
RECENT INVESTMENTS in research have led to innovations in several aspects of tuberculosis control, including developments in new diagnostics. Implementing these innovations at scale and ensuring equitable access, especially in lowand middle-income countries, raises important questions. Health research should contribute to improving the health of poor(More)
BACKGROUND Studies within sub-Saharan African countries have shown that mobile services increase uptake of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) services when compared to clinics and are able to access different populations, but these have included provider-initiated HCT in clinics. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of clients who self-initiated(More)
BACKGROUND Although new molecular diagnostic tests such as GenoType MTBDRplus and Xpert® MTB/RIF have reduced multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment initiation times, patients' experiences of diagnosis and treatment initiation are not known. This study aimed to explore and compare MDR-TB patients' experiences of their diagnostic and treatment(More)
BACKGROUND The South African government is striving for universal access to HIV counselling and testing (HCT), a fundamental component of HIV care and prevention. In the Cape Town district, Western Cape Province of South Africa, HCT is provided free of charge at publically funded primary health care (PHC) facilities and through non-governmental(More)
SETTING Ten primary health care facilities in Cape Town, South Africa, 2010-2013. OBJECTIVE A comparison of costs incurred by patients in GenoType MDRTBplus line-probe assay (LPA) and Xpert MTB/RIF-based diagnostic algorithms from symptom onset until treatment initiation for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). METHODS Eligible patients identified(More)
BACKGROUND Xpert MTB/RIF was introduced as a screening test for all presumptive tuberculosis cases in primary health services in Cape Town, South Africa. STUDY AIM To compare multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment commencement times in MDRTBPlus Line Probe Assay and Xpert MTB/RIF-based algorithms in a routine operational setting. METHODS(More)