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P2X purinergic receptors are plasma membrane ATP-dependent cation channels that are broadly distributed in the mammalian tissues. P2RX2 is a modulator of auditory sensory hair cell mechanotransduction and plays an important role in hair cell tolerance to noise. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time in vitro and in cochlear neuroepithelium, that(More)
The P2X purinergic receptors are cation-selective channels gated by extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). These purinergic receptors are found in virtually all mammalian cell types and facilitate a number of important physiological processes. Within the past few years, the characterization of crystal structures of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in its(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a diverse group of proteolytic enzymes and play an important role in the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In normal physiological conditions, MMPs are usually minimally expressed. Despite their low expression, MMPs have been implicated in many cellular processes ranging from embryological(More)
The Ebola virus is a lipid-enveloped virus that obtains its lipid coat from the plasma membrane of the host cell it infects during the budding process. The Ebola virus protein VP40 localizes to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane and forms the viral matrix, which provides the major structure for the Ebola virus particles. VP40 is initially a dimer that(More)
The transcription antiterminator RfaH has been shown to undergo major structural rearrangements to perform multiple functions. Structural determination of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RfaH showed that it can exist as either an α-helix bundle when interfacing with the N-terminal domain (NTD) or as a β-barrel conformation when it is not interfacing with the(More)
Filovirus infections cause hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates that often results in high fatality rates. The Marburg virus is a lipid-enveloped virus from the Filoviridae family and is closely related to the Ebola virus. The viral matrix layer underneath the lipid envelope is formed by the matrix protein VP40 (VP40), which is also involved(More)
Fluorescent proteins have revolutionized molecular biology research and provide a means of tracking subcellular processes with extraordinary spatial and temporal precision. Species with emission beyond 650 nm offer the potential for deeper tissue penetration and lengthened imaging times; however, the origin of their extended Stokes shift is not fully(More)
The development of fluorescent proteins (FPs) has revolutionized cell biology research. The monomeric variants of red fluorescent proteins (RFPs), known as mFruits, have been especially valuable for tagging and tracking cellular processes in vivo. Determining oxygen diffusion pathways in FPs can be important for improving photostability and for(More)
Ear is a complex system where appropriate ionic composition is essential for maintaining the tissue homeostasis and hearing function. Ion transporters and channels present in the auditory system plays a crucial role in maintaining proper ionic composition in the ear. The extracellular fluid, called endolymph, found in the cochlea of the mammalian inner ear(More)
Self-organization is a critical aspect of living systems. During the folding of protein molecules, the hydrophobic interaction plays an important role in the collapse of the peptide chain to a compact shape. As the hydrophobic core tightens and excludes water, not only does the number of hydrophobic side chain contacts increase, but stabilization is further(More)