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IMPORTANCE Hypertension is the most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, yet there are relatively few data collected using standardized methods. OBJECTIVE To examine hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in participants at baseline in the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. DESIGN, SETTING,(More)
BACKGROUND More than 80% of deaths from cardiovascular disease are estimated to occur in low-income and middle-income countries, but the reasons are unknown. METHODS We enrolled 156,424 persons from 628 urban and rural communities in 17 countries (3 high-income, 10 middle-income, and 4 low-income countries) and assessed their cardiovascular risk using the(More)
BACKGROUND The optimal range of sodium intake for cardiovascular health is controversial. METHODS We obtained morning fasting urine samples from 101,945 persons in 17 countries and estimated 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion (used as a surrogate for intake). We examined the association between estimated urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the(More)
BACKGROUND Higher levels of sodium intake are reported to be associated with higher blood pressure. Whether this relationship varies according to levels of sodium or potassium intake and in different populations is unknown. METHODS We studied 102,216 adults from 18 countries. Estimates of 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion were made from a single(More)
BACKGROUND Major increases in HIV-1 prevalence in India have been predicted. Incident infections need to be tracked to understand the epidemic's course, especially in some southern states of India where the epidemic is more advanced. To estimate incidence, we investigated the prevalence of HIV-1 in young people attending antenatal and sexually transmitted(More)
BACKGROUND Over 75% of the annual estimated 9.5 million deaths in India occur in the home, and the large majority of these do not have a certified cause. India and other developing countries urgently need reliable quantification of the causes of death. They also need better epidemiological evidence about the relevance of physical (such as blood pressure and(More)
IMPORTANCE Little is known about adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors among individuals with a coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke event in communities across a range of countries worldwide. OBJECTIVE To examine the prevalence of avoidance or cessation of smoking, eating a healthy diet, and undertaking regular physical activities by individuals with(More)
BACKGROUND WHO has targeted that medicines to prevent recurrent cardiovascular disease be available in 80% of communities and used by 50% of eligible individuals by 2025. We have previously reported that use of these medicines is very low, but now aim to assess how such low use relates to their lack of availability or poor affordability. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Although 24-h urinary measure to estimate sodium and potassium excretion is the gold standard, it is not practical for large studies. We compared estimates of 24-h sodium and potassium excretion from a single morning fasting urine (MFU) using three different formulae in healthy individuals. METHODS We studied 1083 individuals(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies reported a U-shaped association between urinary sodium excretion and cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Whether these associations vary between those individuals with and without hypertension is uncertain. We aimed to explore whether the association between sodium intake and cardiovascular disease events and all-cause(More)