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This report presents an introduction to speech synthesis with a brief overview of some methods and their associated problems. The usage of sinusoidal representation of speech waveform for producing synthetic speech is discussed in detail. The sinusoidal model is based on extracting the amplitudes, frequencies, and phases of the component sine waves from the(More)
Traditional short-time spectral attenuation (STSA) speech enhancement algorithms are ineffective in the presence of highly nonstationary noise due to difficulties in the accurate estimation of the local noise spectrum. With a view to improve the speech quality in the presence of random noise bursts, characteristic of many environmental sounds, a simple(More)
There is conflicting evidence about the importance of urban soils and vegetation in regional C budgets that is caused, in part, by inconsistent definitions of "urban" land use. We quantified urban ecosystem contributions to C stocks in the Boston (Massachusetts, USA) Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) using several alternative urban definitions.(More)
Melodic motifs form essential building blocks in Indian Classical music. The motifs, or key phrases, provide strong cues to the identity of the underlying raga in both Hindustani and Carnatic styles of Indian music. Thus the automatic detection of such recurring basic melodic shapes from audio is of relevance in music information retrieval. The extraction(More)
Ragas are characterized by their melodic motifs or catch phrases that constitute strong cues to the raga identity for both, the performer and the listener, and therefore are of great interest in music retrieval and automatic transcription. While the characteristic phrases, or pakads, appear in written notation as a sequence of notes, musicological rules for(More)
This paper describes some early attempts at developing a music indexing and retrieval system based on melody, or the tune, of songs. In the envisaged system the “query”, a song fragment whistled or sung by the user into a microphone, is used to search a database of soundtracks to find the entry that is best matched to it in tune. The challenging issues that(More)