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There is conflicting evidence about the importance of urban soils and vegetation in regional C budgets that is caused, in part, by inconsistent definitions of "urban" land use. We quantified urban ecosystem contributions to C stocks in the Boston (Massachusetts, USA) Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) using several alternative urban definitions.(More)
Melodic motifs form essential building blocks in Indian Classical music. The motifs, or key phrases, provide strong cues to the identity of the underlying raga in both Hindustani and Carnatic styles of Indian music. Thus the automatic detection of such recurring basic melodic shapes from audio is of relevance in music information retrieval. The extraction(More)
Music information retrieval is a field of rapidly growing commercial interest. This paper describes TANSEN, a query-by-humming based music retrieval system under development at IIT, Bombay. Named after the legendary musician (and a tenuous acronym for " TA-Note Song Extractor-Navigator), the system is designed to accept acoustic queries in the form of sung(More)
This paper describes some early attempts at developing a music indexing and retrieval system based on melody, or the tune, of songs. In the envisaged system the " query " , a song fragment whistled or sung by the user into a microphone, is used to search a database of soundtracks to find the entry that is best matched to it in tune. The challenging issues(More)
Vocal music is characterized by a melodically salient singing voice accompanied by one or more instruments. With a pitched instrument background, multiple periodicities are simultaneously present and the task becomes one of identifying and tracking the vocal pitch based on pitch strength and smoothness constraints. Frequency domain harmonic matching methods(More)
— Quantitative evaluation of the quality of a speaker's pronunciation of the vowels of a language can contribute to the important task of speaker accent detection. Our aim is to qualitatively and quantitatively distinguish between native and non-native speakers of a language on the basis of a comparative study of two analysis methods. One deals with(More)
Traditional short-time spectral attenuation (STSA) speech enhancement algorithms are ineffective in the presence of highly nonstationary noise due to difficulties in the accurate estimation of the local noise spectrum. With a view to improve the speech quality in the presence of random noise bursts, characteristic of many environmental sounds, a simple(More)