The IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) chain has a broad expression pattern and participates in IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, allowing it to influence several pathological components of allergic lung inflammation. We previously reported that IL-4Rα expression on both bone marrow-derived and non-bone marrow-derived cells contributed to the severity of allergic lung… (More)
Th2 cells induce asthma through the secretion of cytokines. Two such cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, are critical mediators of many features of this disease. They both share a common receptor subunit, IL-4Rα, and signal through the STAT6 pathway. STAT6(-/-) mice have impaired Th2 differentiation and reduced airway response to allergen. Transferred Th2 cells were… (More)
BACKGROUND CD4+ T helper type 2 (TH2) cells, their cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and the transcription factor STAT6 are known to regulate various features of asthma including lung inflammation, mucus production and airway hyperreactivity and also drive alternative activation of macrophages (AAM). However, the precise roles played by the IL-4/IL-13… (More)
The presence of serine transhydroxymethylase (STHM; EC 18.104.22.168) in crude homogenates of rat, guinea pig and goat retina has been demonstrated. There was a variation in the levels of retinal STHM activity in the three species. Substantial STHM activity was found in all the three retinal preparations in the absence of pyridoxal-5-phosphate in the incubation… (More)
The T(H)2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, play critical roles in inducing allergic lung inflammation and drive the alternative activation of macrophages (AAM). Although both cytokines share receptor subunits, IL-4 and IL-13 have differential roles in asthma pathogenesis: IL-4 regulates T(H)2 cell differentiation, while IL-13 regulates airway hyperreactivity and… (More)
Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 250 micrograms/kg of oxotremorine (OT) caused a 50% decrease in the glycine content of the synaptosomal-mitochondrial fraction of spinal cord homogenates prepared from rats killed 15 min after treatment. The glycine content of the supernatant fraction was correspondingly raised. In synaptosomes isolated from the spinal… (More)
Glyoxylate aminotransferase activity with L-glutamate, L-glutamine and L-alanine as substrates, has been estimated in rat, guinea pig and goat retinae. Enhanced enzyme activity was found in the presence of Triton X-100. The presence of significant aminotransferase activity raises a possibility of glyoxylate as a precursor of glycine in vertebrate retina.