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The IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) chain has a broad expression pattern and participates in IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, allowing it to influence several pathological components of allergic lung inflammation. We previously reported that IL-4Rα expression on both bone marrow-derived and non-bone marrow-derived cells contributed to the severity of allergic lung(More)
During the development of immune responses to pathogens, self-antigens, or environmental allergens, naive CD4(+) T cells differentiate into subsets of effector cells including Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells. The differentiation into these subsets is controlled by specific transcription factors. The activity of these effector cells is limited by nTregs and iTregs,(More)
Th2 cells induce asthma through the secretion of cytokines. Two such cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, are critical mediators of many features of this disease. They both share a common receptor subunit, IL-4Rα, and signal through the STAT6 pathway. STAT6(-/-) mice have impaired Th2 differentiation and reduced airway response to allergen. Transferred Th2 cells were(More)
CD4+ T helper type 2 (TH2) cells, their cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and the transcription factor STAT6 are known to regulate various features of asthma including lung inflammation, mucus production and airway hyperreactivity and also drive alternative activation of macrophages (AAM). However, the precise roles played by the IL-4/IL-13 receptors and STAT6(More)
The use of asialo GM1-containing small unilamellar liposome preparations in vivo caused a 2.8-fold increase in the uptake by the liver as compared with the control (neutral) preparations (without asialo GM1). The uptake of negatively charged dicetylphosphate and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid-containing small unilamellar liposomes was found to be 1.6-and(More)
The concept that macrophages play an active role in inflammatory responses began its development in the late 1800s with the now iconic studies by Elie Metchnikoff using starfish larvae and Daphnia [reviewed in Kaufmann SHE: Nat Immunol 2008;9:705-712 and Cavaillon JM: J Leukoc Biol 2011;90:413-424]. Based on his observation of the phagocyte response to a(More)
Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) is an adaptor protein that becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to the cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13, which results in activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway. IL-4 and IL-13 contribute to allergic lung inflammation. To examine the role of IRS2 in allergic disease, we evaluated the(More)
Activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSDH) and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 beta-HSDH)) were histochemically demonstrated in the alveoli of the uropygial glands of male domestic pigeons (Columba livia Gmelin). The level of 3 beta-HSDH (Substrates: pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone) was very low. On the other(More)