Pravin Kumar Rao

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UNLABELLED Study Type - Therapy (outcomes) Level of Evidence 2a What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Clomiphene citrate, hCG and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) are widely used in treatment of oligospermia, because they increase FSH and testosterone which are essential for spermatogenesis. Finding a sperm in non-obstructive(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the detection of near-infrared fluorescence from prostate tumors stained with a prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted tracer developed in our institution with a novel robotic imaging system. METHODS Prostate cancer cell lines PC3-pip (PSMA positive) and PC3-flu (PSMA negative) were implanted subcutaneously into 6(More)
Trazodone, an atypical antidepressant with relatively low anticholinergic and cardiac conduction effects, offers useful augmentation to classic antidepressant drugs, notably selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. One rare but serious side effect of the drug is priapism, the urological emergency in which the cavernosa of the penis become painfully engorged(More)
Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in prostatic adenocarcinoma (CaP), and its expression is negatively regulated by androgen stimulation. However, it is still unclear which factors are involved in this downregulation. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion is the most common known gene rearrangement in prostate carcinoma. Androgen stimulation can(More)
BACKGROUND Level-1 evidence has demonstrated decreased recurrence of low-grade bladder tumors when initial transurethral resection (TUR) is followed by perioperative instillation (PI) of chemotherapy. A meta-analysis determined that the number needed to treat (NNT) was 8.5 patients to prevent 1 recurrence. No benefit was demonstrated for tumors classified(More)
The majority of pregnant women in the U.S. undergo prenatal ultrasonography and approximately 0.5% of these examinations will detect fetal malformations. Up to one-half of these abnormalities include the genitourinary system and the most common urological finding is hydronephrosis. Some conditions associated with prenatal hydronephrosis portend a poor(More)
Although major health organizations do not support screening for hematuria by dipstick testing, millions of patients without symptoms are tested yearly. Since urinary dipstick tests for hematuria have a high false-positive rate, patients with positive dipstick results require microscopic urinalysis before the diagnosis of hematuria can be made. Primary care(More)
Over a half century ago, Charles Huggins demonstrated the response of prostate cancer to androgen deprivation therapy. Subsequently, many discoveries and evolving findings continued to support a research rationale focused on the androgen receptor (AR) as a key target for prostate cancer. More recently, preliminary trials have suggested that other targets(More)
PURPOSE While many primary care providers advocate routine screening urinalyses, a heme positive dipstick test often leads to a false-positive diagnosis of hematuria, or pseudohematuria. Thus, American Urological Association guidelines recommend urological evaluation for asymptomatic patients only for at least 3 red blood cells per high power field in 2 of(More)