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PURPOSE Retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) is a photoreceptor protein anchored in the connecting cilia by an RPGR-interacting protein (RPGRIP). Loss of RPGRIP causes Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a severe form of photoreceptor degeneration. The current study was an investigation of whether somatic gene replacement could rescue degenerating(More)
Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a severe retinal dystrophy manifesting from early infancy as poor vision or blindness. Loss-of-function mutations in GUCY2D cause LCA1 and are one of the most common causes of LCA, accounting for 20% of all cases. Human GUCY2D and mouse Gucy2e genes encode guanylate cyclase-1 (GC1), which is responsible for restoring the(More)
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to protect ganglion cells in a variety of acute ischaemia models. Here we assess the efficacy of local CNTF gene transfer in protecting retinal ganglion cells when there is focal ischaemia combined with interruption of axoplasmic flow. This dual injury may be more representative of the pathological(More)
Inherited retinal degeneration (IRD) affects around 1/3000 of the population in Europe and the United States. It is a diverse group of conditions that results from mutations in any one of over 100 different genes. Many of the genes have now been identified and their functions elucidated, providing a major impetus to develop gene-based treatments. Whilst(More)
Retroviral and lentiviral vector integration into host-cell chromosomes carries with it a finite chance of causing insertional mutagenesis. This risk has been highlighted by the induction of malignancy in mouse models, and development of lymphoproliferative disease in three individuals with severe combined immunodeficiency-X1 (refs. 2,3). Therefore, a key(More)
A wide range of retinal disorders can potentially be treated using viral vector-mediated gene therapy. The most widely used vectors for ocular gene delivery are based on adeno-associated virus (AAV), because they elicit minimal immune responses and mediate long-term transgene expression in a variety of retinal cell types. Proof-of-concept experiments have(More)
While AAV- and lentivirus-mediated gene replacement therapy can produce structural and functional improvements in various animal models of inherited retinal degeneration, this approach often has very limited effects on the rate of photoreceptor cell loss. Neurotrophic factors such as ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and glial cell line-derived(More)
BACKGROUND Adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vectors show considerable promise for ocular gene transfer. However, one potential barrier to efficacious long-term therapy is the development of immune responses against the vector or transgene product. METHODS We evaluated cellular and humoral responses in mice following both single and repeated(More)
Insertional mutagenesis following gene therapy with gammaretroviral vectors can cause the development of lymphoproliferation in children with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. In experimental studies, recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have also been reported to increase susceptibility to carcinogenesis. The possibility of(More)
Autoimmune posterior uveitis is a chronic, potentially blinding inflammatory disease of the eye. It is commonly treated with immunosuppressive drugs that have adverse long-term effects. Advances in gene transfer techniques have enabled long-term, stable transduction of retinal cells following subretinal injection with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors.(More)