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PURPOSE Various methods have been used to sample biliary strictures, including percutaneous fine-needle aspiration biopsy, intraluminal biliary washings, and cytological analysis of drained bile. However, none of these methods has proven to be particularly sensitive in the diagnosis of biliary tract malignancy. We report improved diagnostic accuracy using a(More)
BACKGROUND Highly sensitive and specific urine-based tests to detect either primary or recurrent bladder cancer have proved elusive to date. Our ever increasing knowledge of the genomic aberrations in bladder cancer should enable the development of such tests based on urinary DNA. METHODS DNA was extracted from urine cell pellets and PCR used to amplify(More)
We report a phase I/II clinical trial in prostate cancer (PCa) using direct intraprostatic injection of a replication defective adenovirus vector (CTL102) encoding bacterial nitroreductase (NTR) in conjunction with systemic prodrug CB1954. One group of patients with localized PCa scheduled for radical prostatectomy received virus alone, prior to surgery, in(More)
The most effective intravesical treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer is instillation of live Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). BCG stimulates the release of cytokines, contributing directly or indirectly to its effectiveness. However, the function of specific cytokines is not well understood. We have undertaken a nonsystematic(More)
• To review the published data on predisposing risk factors for cancer treatment-induced haemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and the evidence for the different preventive and therapeutic measures that have been used in order to help clinicians optimally define and manage this potentially serious condition. • Despite recognition that HC can be a significant(More)
We have completed a phase I/II suicide gene therapy clinical trial in patients with prostate cancer, using an E1/E3-deleted replication-deficient adenovirus (CTL102) encoding the bacterial nitroreductase enzyme in combination with prodrug CB1954. This study has provided an opportunity to monitor and characterize vector- and tumor-specific adaptive immunity(More)
The permanent magnet synchronous generation (PMSG) systems are more popular for low and medium power wind generation applications. Since power converters used in the PMSG systems has a drawback like poorer DC bus utilization of a conventional inverter at lower wind speeds restrict the lower energy generation region. The lower limit of the generation system(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Up to 6% of colorectal cancers (CRCs) are diagnosed within 5 years of a colonoscopy that did not diagnose CRC (post-colonoscopy colorectal cancer, PCCRC). PCCRC and associated risk factors were examined within a national hospital episode database. METHODS A retrospective case-control study of all colonoscopies performed on adults(More)
Cancer/testis antigen (CTAg) expression is restricted to spermatogenic cells in an immune-privileged site within the testis. However, these proteins are expressed aberrantly by malignant cells and T-cell responses against CTAgs develop in many cancer patients. We investigated the prevalence, magnitude and phenotype of CTAg-specific T cells in the blood of(More)