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How can complex movements that take hundreds of milliseconds be generated by stereotypical neural microcircuits consisting of spiking neurons with a much faster dynamics? We show that linear readouts from generic neural microcircuit models can be trained to generate basic arm movements. Such movement generation is independent of the arm model used and the(More)
Although models based on independent component analysis (ICA) have been successful in explaining various properties of sensory coding in the cortex, it remains unclear how networks of spiking neurons using realistic plasticity rules can realize such computation. Here, we propose a biologically plausible mechanism for ICA-like learning with spiking neurons.(More)
It has previously been shown that generic cortical microcircuit models can perform complex real-time computations on continuous input streams, provided that these computations can be carried out with a rapidly fading memory. We investigate the computational capability of such circuits in the more realistic case where not only readout neurons, but in(More)
The interval discrimination task is a classical experimental paradigm that is employed to study working memory and decision making and typically involves four phases. First, the subject receives a stimulus, then holds it in the working memory, then makes a decision by comparing it with another stimulus and finally acts on this decision, usually by pressing(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 is expressed in a majority of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) and is important in prostaglandin production. We have developed an accurate method to measure the urinary metabolite of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE-M) using recently developed mass spectrometric techniques. The purpose of this pre-validation study was to(More)
Simple linear readouts from generic neural microcircuit models can be trained to generate and control basic movements, e.g., reaching with an arm to various target points. After suitable training of these readouts on a small number of target points; reaching movements to nearby points can also be generated. Sensory or proprioceptive feedback turns out to(More)
Biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-ethyl]-methylamide 1 (CA224) is a nonplanar analogue of fascaplysin (2) that specifically inhibits Cdk4-cyclin D1 in vitro. Compound 1 blocks the growth of cancer cells at G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. It also blocks the cell cycle at G2/M phase, which is explained by the fact that it inhibits tubulin(More)
The network topology of neurons in the brain exhibits an abundance of feedback connections, but the computational function of these feedback connections is largely unknown. We present a computational theory that characterizes the gain in computational power achieved through feedback in dynamical systems with fading memory. It implies that many such systems(More)