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Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) expression is deregulated in many cancers. Genetic and biochemical approaches coupled with functional assays in cultured cells were used to explore the consequences of Nrf2 repression. Nrf2 suppression by Keap1-directed ubiquitylation or the expression of independent short hairpin RNA (shRNA)/siRNA(More)
A survey of the mental morbidity of an urban group and two rural groups was made with the same method, same operational definition of a case and by the same team. The aim was to find out the nature and extent of the difference in their rates of morbidity and to identify the psychosocial variables associated with this difference. It was found that the rate(More)
The transcription regulatory protein Sp3 shares more than 90% sequence homology with Sp1 in the DNA-binding domain and they bind to the same cognate DNA-element. However, the transcriptional activities of these two Sp-family factors are not equivalent. While Sp1 functions strictly as a transcriptional activator, Sp3 has been shown to be transcriptionally(More)
BACKGROUND Higher frequency of Smad4 inactivation or loss of expression is observed in metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) leading to unfavourable survival and contributes to chemoresistance. However, the molecular mechanism of how Smad4 regulates chemosensitivity of CRC is unknown. METHODS We evaluated how the loss of Smad4 in CRC enhanced(More)
Although Smad signalling is known to play a tumour suppressor role, it has been shown to play a prometastatic function also in breast cancer and melanoma metastasis to bone. In contrast, mutation or reduced level of Smad4 in colorectal cancer is directly correlated to poor survival and increased metastasis. However, the functional role of Smad signalling in(More)
Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family regulate a wide range of biological processes including cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix deposition. Resistance to TGF-beta-mediated tumour suppressor function in human lung cancer may occur through the loss of type II receptor (TbetaRII)(More)
We examined the mechanism regulating the cellular levels of PNKP, the major kinase/phosphatase involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage, and find that it is controlled by ATM phosphorylation and ubiquitylation-dependent proteasomal degradation. We discovered that ATM-dependent phosphorylation of PNKP at serines 114 and 126 in response to oxidative DNA(More)
Organizational characteristics in English NHS hospitals and the experiences of patients with three common cancers - breast, colorectal and lung - were examined using secondary data analyses. Two specific measures of satisfaction, Respect and Dignity, reflecting inpatient care, and Communication reflecting hospital outpatient care, were drawn from a national(More)
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process that allows an epithelial cell to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype through multiple biochemical changes resulting in an increased migratory capacity. During cancer progression, EMT is found to be associated with an invasive or metastatic phenotype. In this review, we focus on the discussion of recent(More)
Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) are activated in chronic liver damage and may contribute to liver fibrosis. Our previous investigation reported that LPCs produced connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), an inducer of liver fibrosis, yet the regulatory mechanism of the production of CTGF/CCN2 in LPCs remains elusive. In this study, we report that Activin(More)