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Small molecule inhibitors of signaling pathways have proven to be extremely useful for the development of therapeutic strategies for human cancers. Blocking the tumor-promoting effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in advanced stage carcinogenesis provides a potentially interesting drug target for therapeutic intervention. Although very few(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling occurs through Smads 2/3/4, which translocate to the nucleus to regulate transcription; TGF-beta has tumor-suppressive effects in some tumor models and pro-metastatic effects in others. In patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), mutations or reduced levels of Smad4 have been correlated with(More)
Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family regulate a wide range of biological processes including cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix deposition. Resistance to TGF-beta-mediated tumour suppressor function in human lung cancer may occur through the loss of type II receptor (TbetaRII)(More)
The loss of growth-inhibitory responses to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a frequent consequence of malignant transformation. Smad2, Smad3, and Smad4 proteins are important mediators of the antiproliferative responses to TGF-beta and may become inactivated in some human cancers. Epithelial cells harboring oncogenic Ras mutations often exhibit(More)
Smad proteins play a key role in the intracellular signaling of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of extracellular polypeptides that initiate signaling to regulate a wide variety of biological processes. The inhibitory Smad, Smad7, has been shown to function as intracellular antagonists of TGF-beta family signaling and is(More)
Lung carcinogenesis in humans involves an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to alterations in normal lung epithelium, to in situ carcinoma, and finally to invasive and metastatic cancers. The loss of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-induced tumor suppressor function in tumors plays a pivotal role in this process, and our previous(More)
The transcription regulatory protein Sp3 shares more than 90% sequence homology with Sp1 in the DNA-binding domain and they bind to the same cognate DNA-element. However, the transcriptional activities of these two Sp-family factors are not equivalent. While Sp1 functions strictly as a transcriptional activator, Sp3 has been shown to be transcriptionally(More)
Metastasis is a primary cause of mortality due to cancer. Early metastatic growth involves both a remodeling of the extracellular matrix surrounding tumors and invasion of tumors across the basement membrane. Up-regulation of extracellular matrix degrading proteases such as urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinases has been(More)
We have recently reported that the expression of a tight junction protein, claudin-1, is increased during colon carcinogenesis and particularly metastatic colorectal cancer. Manipulation of claudin-1 levels in colon cancer cells showed a positive correlation between claudin-1 expression and tumor growth and metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying the(More)
Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are activated in the chronic liver injury and are found to participate in the progression of liver fibrosis, while the precise role of HPCs in liver fibrosis remains largely elusive. In this study, by immunostaining of human liver sections, we confirmed that HPCs were activated in the cirrhotic liver and secreted transforming(More)