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Dendritic cells (DC) are key components of innate and adaptive immune responses. The identity of endogenous signals that activate DC is a crucial and unresolved question. We report here that heat shock proteins (HSP), the most abundant and conserved mammalian molecules, constitute such an internal signal. Necrotic but not apoptotic cell death leads to(More)
Stress-induced proteins (or heat shock proteins (HSPs)) of 96 kDa size (gp96) have been shown previously to elicit specific immunity to tumors from which they are isolated. In this report, we show that in contrast to Meth A-derived gp96, gp96 preparations derived from normal tissues did not elicit immunity to Meth A sarcoma at any dose tested. Further, in(More)
Endogenously synthesized antigenic determinants are generally presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, whereas exogenous determinants are presented by MHC class II molecules. Here, it is shown that exogenous antigens chaperoned by a heat shock protein can be channeled into the endogenous pathway, presented by MHC class I(More)
Complexes of the heat shock protein gp96 and antigenic peptides are taken up by antigen-presenting cells and presented by MHC class I molecules. In order to explain the unusual efficiency of this process, the uptake of gp96 had been postulated to occur through a receptor, identified recently as CD91. We show here that complexes of peptides with heat shock(More)
gp96 is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone for cell-surface Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Little is known about its roles in chaperoning other TLRs or in the biology of macrophage in vivo. We generated a macrophage-specific gp96-deficient mouse. Despite normal development and activation by interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1beta,(More)
Heat shock proteins are abundant soluble intracellular proteins, present in all cells. Members of the heat shock protein family bind peptides including antigenic peptides generated within cells. Heat shock proteins also interact with antigen presenting cells through CD91 and other receptors, eliciting a cascade of events including re-presentation of heat(More)
Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are the most abundant and ubiquitous soluble intracellular proteins. In single-cell organisms, invertebrates and vertebrates, they perform a multitude of housekeeping functions that are essential for cellular survival. In higher vertebrates, their ability to interact with a wide range of proteins and peptides--a property that is(More)
Antigen presenting cells (APCs) can take up exogenous antigenic peptides chaperoned by heat shock protein gp96 and re-present them through the endogenous pathway on their major histocompatibility class I molecules. The high efficiency of this process has been attributed previously to a receptor for gp96 on APCs. The CD91 molecule (also called alpha(More)
Recently emerging evidence indicates that the heat shock proteins (HSPs) gp96, hsp90, and hsp70 associate with antigenic peptides derived from cellular proteins. This evidence forms the basis of the following two hypotheses: 1) that HSPs constitute a relay line in which the peptides, after generation in the cytosol by the action of proteases, are(More)