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BACKGROUND The occurrence of diabetes has greatly increased in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in Asia, as has the prevalence of overweight and obesity; in European-derived populations, overweight and obesity are established causes of diabetes. The shape of the association of overweight and obesity with diabetes risk and its overall impact(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the effect of using smokeless tobacco during pregnancy on babies' birth weight and gestational age at birth. DESIGN Population based, prospective cohort study using a house to house approach. SETTING Eight primary health post areas in the city of Mumbai (Bombay), India. PARTICIPANTS 1217 women who were three to seven months pregnant(More)
BACKGROUND The age-specific mortality rates and total deaths from specific cancers have not been documented for the various regions and subpopulations of India. We therefore assessed the cause of death in 2001-03 in homes in small areas that were chosen to be representative of all the parts of India. METHODS At least 130 trained physicians independently(More)
BACKGROUND Tobacco use has been identified as the single biggest cause of inequality in morbidity. The objective of this study is to examine the role of social determinants on current tobacco use in thirteen low-and-middle income countries. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We used nationally representative data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)(More)
An evaluation of the malignant potential of submucous fibrosis, based on observations of 89 patients with the disease in Ernakulam District, Kerala, India was done. Out of the 89 patients, 12 were referred patients and 77 were diagnosed in population based studies. At the time of first examination oral cancer was found to be coexistent in nine (10%) cases.(More)
INTRODUCTION Overall mortality rates are higher among cigarette smokers than non-smokers. However, very little is known about the health effects of other forms of tobacco use widely prevalent in India, such as bidi smoking and various forms of smokeless tobacco (e.g. chewing betel-quid). We therefore carried out a cohort study in the city of Mumbai, India,(More)
BACKGROUND Influence of education, a marker of SES, on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality has not been evaluated in low-income countries. To determine influence of education on CVD mortality a cohort study was performed in India. METHODS 148,173 individuals aged ≥ 35 years were recruited in Mumbai during 1991-1997 and followed to ascertain vital(More)
In a house-to-house survey, 36 471 tobacco chewers and smokers were selected from the rural population in three areas of India. These individuals were interviewed for their tobacco habits and examined for the presence of oral leukoplakia and other precancerous lesions, first in a baseline survey, and then annually over a 5-year period. By personal advice(More)
BACKGROUND Over 75% of the annual estimated 9.5 million deaths in India occur in the home, and the large majority of these do not have a certified cause. India and other developing countries urgently need reliable quantification of the causes of death. They also need better epidemiological evidence about the relevance of physical (such as blood pressure and(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the high global burden of diseases caused by tobacco, valid and comparable prevalence data for patterns of adult tobacco use and factors influencing use are absent for many low-income and middle-income countries. We assess these patterns through analysis of data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). METHODS Between Oct 1, 2008,(More)