Prakash Babu Adhikari

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BACKGROUND Down syndrome (DS) is a common chromosomal anomaly. People with this syndrome have recognisable physical characteristics and limited intellectual abilities. The aim of this study was to determine visual defects, especially refractive error and binocular anomalies, in a sample of Nepalese children with DS. METHODS Thirty-six children with DS (19(More)
Production of compound K (a ginsenoside saponin) and its precursors in transgenic tobacco resulted in stunted growth and seed set failure, which may be caused by strong autotoxicity of heterologously produced phytochemicals against the tobacco itself. Panax ginseng roots contain various saponins (ginsenosides), which are major bioactive compounds. A(More)
Melanopsin expressing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) entirely control the post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) from 6 s post-stimulus to the plateau during redilation after light offset. However, the photoreceptor contributions to the early redilation phase of the PIPR (< 6 s post-stimulus) have not been reported. Here, we(More)
BACKGROUND Assessment of nutritional status of children is a very good indicator of socio-economic growth of a community. OBJECTIVE The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of undernutrition among the Nepalese children of Kathmandu Valley, the capital of Nepal. METHODS Height and weight of 1988 children aged 6-10 years were measured from(More)
Protopanaxadiol (PPD) is an aglycone of dammarene-type ginsenoside and has high medicinal values. In this work, we reported the PPD production in transgenic tobacco co-overexpressing PgDDS and CYP716A47. PPD is an aglycone of ginsenosides produced by Panax species and has a wide range of pharmacological activities. PPD is synthesized via the hydroxylation(More)
Melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate the pupil light reflex (PLR) during light onset and at light offset (the post-illumination pupil response, PIPR). Recent evidence shows that the PLR and PIPR can provide non-invasive, objective markers of age-related retinal and optic nerve disease; however there is(More)
PURPOSE The post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) has been quantified using four metrics, but the spectral sensitivity of only one is known; here we determine the other three. To optimize the human PIPR measurement, we determine the protocol producing the largest PIPR, the duration of the PIPR, and the metric(s) with the lowest coefficient of variation.(More)
It is difficult to detect visual function deficits in patients at risk for glaucoma (glaucoma suspects) and at early disease stages with conventional ophthalmic tests such as perimetry. To this end, we introduce a novel quadrant field measure of the melanopsin retinal ganglion cell mediated pupil light response corresponding with typical glaucomatous(More)
Both figures show that the centre of the lenses (devoted to far distance) does not reach the nominal distance power of the lens (−3.0 D), being slightly more positive. A higher nominal power of the lenses implies a higher addition, however, this may impact on distance vision. Therefore, this positive over-correction (around 0.5 D) should be taken into(More)