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BACKGROUND Down syndrome (DS) is a common chromosomal anomaly. People with this syndrome have recognisable physical characteristics and limited intellectual abilities. The aim of this study was to determine visual defects, especially refractive error and binocular anomalies, in a sample of Nepalese children with DS. METHODS Thirty-six children with DS (19(More)
Melanopsin expressing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) entirely control the post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) from 6 s post-stimulus to the plateau during redilation after light offset. However, the photoreceptor contributions to the early redilation phase of the PIPR (< 6 s post-stimulus) have not been reported. Here, we(More)
PURPOSE The post-illumination pupil response (PIPR) has been quantified using four metrics, but the spectral sensitivity of only one is known; here we determine the other three. To optimize the human PIPR measurement, we determine the protocol producing the largest PIPR, the duration of the PIPR, and the metric(s) with the lowest coefficient of variation.(More)
Melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate the pupil light reflex (PLR) during light onset and at light offset (the post-illumination pupil response, PIPR). Recent evidence shows that the PLR and PIPR can provide non-invasive, objective markers of age-related retinal and optic nerve disease; however there is(More)
It is difficult to detect visual function deficits in patients at risk for glaucoma (glaucoma suspects) and at early disease stages with conventional ophthalmic tests such as perimetry. To this end, we introduce a novel quadrant field measure of the melanopsin retinal ganglion cell mediated pupil light response corresponding with typical glaucomatous(More)
PURPOSE To determine neuroretinal function with multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) in diabetic subjects without retinopathy. METHODS Multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) was performed in 18 eyes of 18 diabetic subjects without retinopathy and 17 eyes of 17 age and gender-matched healthy control participants. Among 18 diabetic subjects, two had type 1(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine detailed oculo-visual characteristics of children with intellectual disability studying in special schools and explore the burden of visual impairment. DESIGN OF THE STUDY Detailed ophthalmic examination was carried out in all pupils studying at the seven special needs schools of Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Ophthalmic examination(More)
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