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The bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is a central regulator of bile acid and lipid metabolism. We show here that FXR plays a key regulatory role in glucose homeostasis. FXR-null mice developed severe fatty liver and elevated circulating FFAs, which was associated with elevated serum glucose and impaired glucose and insulin tolerance.(More)
Constitutive androstane receptor CAR (NR1I3) has been identified as a central mediator of coordinate responses to xenobiotic and endobiotic stress. Here we use leptin-deficient mice (ob/ob) and ob/ob, CAR(-/-) double mutant mice to identify a metabolic role of CAR in type 2 diabetes. Activation of CAR significantly reduces serum glucose levels and improves(More)
The lysosomal-autophagic pathway is activated by starvation and plays an important role in both cellular clearance and lipid catabolism. However, the transcriptional regulation of this pathway in response to metabolic cues is uncharacterized. Here we show that the transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy, is(More)
Previous reports showed that recombinant fragments of adiponectin (adipo) displayed pharmacological effects when injected into rodents, but the relevance of these observations to the physiological function of adipo is unclear. We generated Adipo(-/-) mice by gene targeting. Adipo(-/-) mice are fertile with normal body and fat pad weights. Plasma glucose and(More)
Ghrelin and leptin are suggested to regulate energy homeostasis as mutual antagonists on hypothalamic neurons that regulate feeding behavior. We employed reverse genetics to investigate the interplay between ghrelin and leptin. Leptin-deficient mice (ob/ob) are hyperphagic, obese, and hyperglycemic. Unexpectedly, ablation of ghrelin in ob/ob mice fails to(More)
Mutations in BSCL2 underlie human congenital generalized lipodystrophy. We inactivated Bscl2 in mice to examine the mechanisms whereby absence of Bscl2 leads to adipose tissue loss and metabolic disorders. Bscl2(-/-) mice develop severe lipodystrophy of white adipose tissue (WAT), dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. In vitro(More)
A buff-yellow-pigmented bacterium, strain K22-20(T), which was isolated from a cold desert of the Indian Himalayas, was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Phenotypic and chemical properties of strain K22-20(T) were consistent with its classification in the genus Ornithinimicrobium. The major fatty acids of the strain were iso-C(17 : 1)omega9c(More)
A novel facultatively anaerobic strain, designated GPTSA 19(T), was isolated from a warm spring and characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strain behaved as Gram-negative in the Gram staining procedure but showed a Gram-positive reaction in the aminopeptidase test. The novel strain was a mesophilic rod with ellipsoidal endospores. On the basis of(More)
The triterpenoid 2-Cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic-acid (CDDO) and its methyl ester (CDDO-Me) are undergoing clinical trials in cancer and leukemia therapy. Here we report that CDDO-Me ameliorates diabetes in high fat diet-fed type 2 diabetic mice and in Lepr(db/db) mice. CDDO-Me reduces proinflammatory cytokine expression in these animals. Oral(More)
A polyphasic taxonomic approach was employed to characterize a strain designated GPTSA100-9T, which was isolated from water sampled from a warm spring. The micro-organism, comprising Gram-negative, strictly aerobic rods, could not grow on nutritionally rich media such as tryptic soy broth. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence (1396 nt) of strain(More)