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Tumours with mutant BRAF are dependent on the RAF-MEK-ERK signalling pathway for their growth. We found that ATP-competitive RAF inhibitors inhibit ERK signalling in cells with mutant BRAF, but unexpectedly enhance signalling in cells with wild-type BRAF. Here we demonstrate the mechanistic basis for these findings. We used chemical genetic methods to show(More)
Activated RAS promotes dimerization of members of the RAF kinase family. ATP-competitive RAF inhibitors activate ERK signalling by transactivating RAF dimers. In melanomas with mutant BRAF(V600E), levels of RAS activation are low and these drugs bind to BRAF(V600E) monomers and inhibit their activity. This tumour-specific inhibition of ERK signalling(More)
Tumors with mutant BRAF and some with mutant RAS are dependent upon ERK signaling for proliferation, and their growth is suppressed by MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors. In contrast, tumor cells with human EGF receptor (HER) kinase activation proliferate in a MEK-independent manner. These findings have led to the development of RAF and MEK inhibitors as(More)
Selection of a dominant follicle that will ovulate likely occurs by activation of cell survival pathways and suppression of death-promoting pathways in a mechanism involving FSH and its cognate receptor (FSHR). A yeast two-hybrid screen of an ovarian cDNA library was employed to identify potential interacting partners with human FSHR intracellular loops 1(More)
UNLABELLED mTOR kinase inhibitors block mTORC1 and mTORC2 and thus do not cause the mTORC2 activation of AKT observed with rapamycin. We now show, however, that these drugs have a biphasic effect on AKT. Inhibition of mTORC2 leads to AKT serine 473 (S473) dephosphorylation and a rapid but transient inhibition of AKT T308 phosphorylation and AKT signaling.(More)
BRAF(V600E) drives tumors by dysregulating ERK signaling. In these tumors, we show that high levels of ERK-dependent negative feedback potently suppress ligand-dependent mitogenic signaling and Ras function. BRAF(V600E) activation is Ras independent and it signals as a RAF-inhibitor-sensitive monomer. RAF inhibitors potently inhibit RAF monomers and ERK(More)
ERK signaling requires RAS-induced RAF dimerization and is limited by feedback. Activated BRAF mutants evade feedback inhibition of RAS by either of two mechanisms. BRAF V600 mutants are activated monomers when RAS activity is low; all other activating BRAF mutants function as constitutive RAS-independent dimers. RAF inhibitors effectively inhibit mutant(More)
PURPOSE mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) plays a central role in regulating cell growth and cell cycle progression and is regarded as a promising therapeutic target. We examined whether mTOR inhibition by RAD001 (everolimus) is therapeutically efficacious in the treatment of ovarian cancer as a single agent and in combination with cisplatin. (More)
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by lesions composed of pathological CD207(+) dendritic cells with an inflammatory infiltrate. BRAFV600E remains the only recurrent mutation reported in LCH. In order to evaluate the spectrum of somatic mutations in LCH, whole exome sequencing was performed on matched LCH and(More)
Activation of AKT and overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) are frequently observed in human ovarian cancer. To explore a possible connection between AKT and FAS, immunohistochemical analyses were conducted on an ovarian cancer tissue microarray, which revealed a significant correlation between phosphorylated AKT (phospho-AKT) and expression of FAS.(More)