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Interleukin (IL) 25 (IL-17E), a distinct member of the IL-17 cytokine family, plays important roles in evoking T helper type 2 (Th2) cell-mediated inflammation that features the infiltrations of eosinophils and Th2 memory cells. However, the cellular sources, target cells, and underlying mechanisms remain elusive in humans. We demonstrate that human Th2(More)
Recently, the IL-17 family member cytokines have become prominent subjects of investigation. IL-17 (IL-17A) is the best-described member of this family where its production has been mainly attributed to a specialized T helper subset of the adaptive immune response termed Th17. However, recent research on this and other Th17 cytokines has revealed new(More)
The physiological regulation of the expression of interleukin (IL)-9, a cytokine traditionally regarded as being T(H)2 associated, remains unclear. Here, we show that IL-9-expressing T cells generated in vitro in the presence of transforming growth factor-beta and IL-4 express high levels of mRNA for IL-17 receptor B (IL-17RB), the receptor for IL-25.(More)
Resistance to quinoline-containing compound has been associated with the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) gene. We analyzed wild P. falciparum isolates with high levels of chloroquine and mefloquine resistance for their macrorestriction maps of chromosome 5 and sequence of pfmdr1. Two types of chromosome 5 amplification were found.(More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of innate and adaptive proallergic type 2 responses are not understood. Interleukin (IL) 25, a member of the IL-17 cytokine family, was recently reported (Owyang, A.M., C. Zaph, E.H. Wilson, K.J. Guild, T. McClanahan, H.R. Miller, D.J. Cua, M. Goldschmidt, C.A. Hunter, R.A. Kastelein, and D. Artis. 2006. J.(More)
Interleukin 17 (IL-17) family consists of six cytokines in mammals. Among them, IL-17 and IL-17F are expressed by a novel subset of CD4+ helper T (Th) cells and play critical function in inflammation and autoimmunity. On the other hand, IL-17E, also called IL-25, has been associated with allergic responses. Here we summarize recent work by us as well as(More)
Severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection has long been associated with an increased risk for the development of childhood asthma and exacerbations of this disorder. Despite much research into the induction of Th2 responses by allergens and helminths, the factors associated with viral infection that predispose to Th2-regulated asthma remain(More)
How naive CD4(+) T cells commit to the T helper type 2 (T(H)2) lineage is poorly understood. Here we show that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Dec2 was selectively expressed in T(H)2 cells. CD4(+) T cells from Dec2-deficient mice showed defective T(H)2 differentiation in vitro and in vivo in an asthma model and in response to challenge with(More)
Pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (PS) is used as a second-line treatment for P. falciparum malaria patients who fail to respond to chloroquine. Resistance to these drugs has been shown to encode with point mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthetase (DHPS) genes. Our aim was to assess the comparative rate of point mutation occurring(More)
The innate immune response of airway epithelial cells to airborne allergens initiates the development of T cell responses that are central to allergic inflammation. Although proteinase allergens induce the expression of interleukin 25, we show here that epithelial matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) was expressed during asthma and was required for the maximum(More)