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One of the characteristics of people suffering from addictive behaviors is the tendency to be distracted by drug cues. This attentional bias for drug cues is thought to lead to increased craving and drug use, and may draw individuals into a vicious cycle of drug addiction. In the current study we developed a Dutch version of the cannabis Stroop task and(More)
Why are some individuals more susceptible to the formation of inflexible habits than others? In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to demonstrate that brain connectivity predicts individual differences in relative goal-directed and habitual behavioral control in humans. Specifically, vulnerability to habitual "slips of action" toward(More)
Why do we indulge in food-seeking and eating behaviors at times when we are already fully sated? In the present study we investigated the hypothesis that food-associated cues in the environment can interfere with goal-directed action by eliciting food-seeking that is independent of the current desirability of the outcome. To this end, we used a computerized(More)
Human behavior can be paradoxical, in that actions can be initiated that are seemingly incongruent with an individual's explicit desires. This is most commonly observed in drug addiction, where maladaptive behavior (i.e., drug seeking) appears to be compulsive, continuing at great personal cost. Approach biases toward addictive substances have been(More)
Approach Avoidance tasks measure approach bias, a behavioral tendency to be faster at approaching rather than avoiding drug cues. Approach bias has been measured in a number of different drug-using populations and there is evidence to suggest that approach bias measurements correlate with drug use. Little is known, however, about the motivational mechanisms(More)
Increasing age is associated with subtle but meaningful changes in decision-making. It is unknown, however, to what degree these psychological changes are reflective of age-related changes in decision quality. Here, we investigated the effect of age on latent cognitive processes associated with risky decision-making on the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART).(More)
Adolescents and children are the targets of much food advertising, the majority of which is for unhealthy snacks. Although the effects of advertising on food preferences and consummatory behavior are well documented, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still limited. The present study investigates an associative (ideomotor) mechanism by which(More)
Ideomotor theory proposes that goal-directed action emerges from the implicit, incidental acquisition of bi-directional associations between actions and their outcomes. In line with this idea, a simple two-stage priming paradigm has provided evidence that presentation of outcomes primes previously associated actions. In the current study we compare the(More)
We direct our attention to those visual stimuli that are relevant to our behavioral goals. Some of the visual stimuli that surround us are represented more strongly, because they have a higher luminance contrast. However, selective attention also boosts the representation of visual stimuli. It is not yet well understood how attention and contrast interact.(More)
Approach Avoidance tasks measure approach bias, a behavioral tendency to be faster at approaching rather than avoiding drug cues. Approach bias has been measured in a number of different drug-using populations and there is evidence to suggest that approach bias measurements correlate with drug use. Little is known, however, about the motivational mechanisms(More)