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Compared with temperate birds, tropical birds have low reproductive rates, slow development as nestlings, and long lifespans. These "slow" life history traits are thought to be associated with reduced energy expenditure, or a slow "pace of life." To test predictions from this hypothesis, we measured exercise-induced peak metabolic rates (PMR(E)) in 45(More)
Tropical birds are relatively long-lived and produce few offspring, which develop slowly and mature relatively late in life, the slow end of the life-history axis, whereas temperate birds lie at the opposite end of this continuum. We tested the hypothesis that tropical birds have evolved a reduced basal metabolic rate (BMR). We measured BMR of 69 species of(More)
Oxidative metabolism has reactive oxygen species (ROS) as unavoidable by-products, and the damage ROS inflicts on DNA, proteins and lipids is considered to be a major agent of senescence. Increasing reproductive effort accelerates senescence, but whether reproductive effort is increased at the expense of protection against oxidative damage has not yet been(More)
Antioxidants play an important role in protecting tissues against aging-associated oxidative damage and are thus prime candidates for relating physiological mechanisms to variation in life histories. We measured total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant response to stress, and levels of uric acid, vitamin E, and four carotenoids in 95 avian species, mostly(More)
Foraging adaptations include behavioral and physiological responses, but most optimal foraging models deal exclusively with behavioral decision variables, taking other dimensions as constraints. To overcome this limitation, we measured behavioral and physiological responses of European starlings Sturnus vulgaris to changes in food availability in a(More)
Although most birds are accustomed to making short flights, particularly during foraging, the flight patterns during these short periods of activity differ between species. Nectarivorous birds, in particular, often spend time hovering, while non-nectarivorous birds do not. The cost of short flights is likely therefore to differ between nectarivorous and(More)
Understanding the effect of food availability on food requirements is critical when linking food availability e.g. to reproduction or habitat selection. Decreasing intake rate (intake per unit foraging effort) can be expected to increase daily energy expenditure (DEE), due to increased foraging costs. However, all the studies we could find that have tested(More)
Attributes of an animal's life history, such as reproductive rate or longevity, typically fall along a 'slow-fast' continuum. Animals at the fast end of this continuum, such as temperate birds, are thought to experience high rates of mortality and invest more resources in reproduction, whereas animals at the slow end, such as tropical birds, live longer,(More)
Knowledge of the physiological consequences of variation in food availability may be essential for understanding behavioural and life history responses to such variation. To study the physiological consequences of food availability animals are generally subjected to caloric restriction or starvation, thereby reducing the upper limit to the energy budget.(More)
For vertebrates, body mass underlies much of the variation in metabolism, but among animals of the same body mass, metabolism varies six-fold. Understanding how natural selection can influence variation in metabolism remains a central focus of Physiological Ecologists. Life-history theory postulates that many physiological traits, such as metabolism, may be(More)