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INTRODUCTION Controversy exists regarding within-limb somatotopy, i.e., organization of representations of within-limb segments (e.g., elbow, fingers), in the primary motor cortex (M1). While some believe that within-limb representations overlap, others postulate somatotopic distinction. The purpose of our study was to aid the resolution of this controversy(More)
The metabolic repertoire in nature is augmented by generating hybrid metabolites from a limited set of gene products. In mycobacteria, several unique complex lipids are produced by the combined action of fatty acid synthases and polyketide synthases (PKSs), although it is not clear how the covalently sequestered biosynthetic intermediates are transferred(More)
Nanotechnology is a fast growing area of research that aims to create nanomaterials or nanostructures development in stem cell and tissue-based therapies. Concepts and discoveries from the fields of bio nano research provide exciting opportunities of using stem cells for regeneration of tissues and organs. The application of nanotechnology to stem-cell(More)
CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells (NKT cells) possess a wide range of effector and regulatory activities that are related to their ability to secrete both T helper 1 (Th1) cell- and Th2 cell-type cytokines. We analyzed presentation of NKT cell activating alpha galactosylceramide (alphaGalCer) analogs that give predominantly Th2 cell-type cytokine(More)
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in paints, printing ink, rubber, paper, cosmetics, sunscreens, car materials, cleaning air products, industrial photocatalytic processes, and decomposing organic matters in wastewater due to their unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was conducted to assess the(More)
The recent discovery of fatty acyl-AMP ligases (FAALs) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) provided a new perspective of fatty acid activation. These proteins convert fatty acids to the corresponding adenylates, which are intermediates of acyl-CoA-synthesizing fatty acyl-CoA ligases (FACLs). Presently, it is not evident how obligate pathogens such as Mtb(More)
Many hematopoietic cell types express CD1d and are capable of presenting glycolipid antigens to invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells). However, the question of which cells are the principal presenters of glycolipid antigens in vivo remains controversial, and it has been suggested that this might vary depending on the structure of a particular(More)
Hyperpigmentary disorders, especially melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), cause significant social and emotional stress to the patients. Although many treatment modalities have been developed for melasma and PIH, its management still remains a challenge due to its recurrent and refractory nature. With the advent of laser technology, the(More)
The driving advent of portable, integrated biosensing ways for pathogen detection methods offers increased sensitivity and specificity over traditional microbiological techniques. The miniaturization and automation of integrated detection systems present a significant advantage for rapid, portable detection of foodborne microbes. In this review, we have(More)
Structural variants of α-galactosylceramide (αGC) that activate invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are being developed as potential immunomodulatory agents for a variety of applications. Identification of specific forms of these glycolipids that bias responses to favor production of proinflammatory vs anti-inflammatory cytokines is central to(More)