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Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a cytosolic receptor that recognizes viral RNA and activates the interferon-mediated innate antiviral response. To understand the mechanism of signal activation at the receptor level, we cloned, expressed, and purified human RIG-I containing the two caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) followed by the(More)
We identified two novel naturally occurring mutations (W74L and L77R) in the small S envelope protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Mutation L77R alone resulted in >10-fold-reduced secretion of virions. In addition, the 2.8-fold reduction of the extracellular HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) of mutant L77R from transfected Huh7 cells appeared to be correlated with(More)
To test a previously coined "charge balance hypothesis" of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid stability, we established an in vitro disassembly and reassembly system using bacterially expressed HBV capsids. Capsid disassembly can be induced by micrococcal nuclease digestion of encapsidated RNA. HBV core protein (HBc) mutants containing various amounts of(More)
Instead of displaying the wild-type selective export of virions containing mature genomes, human hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutant I97L, changing from an isoleucine to a leucine at amino acid 97 of HBV core antigen (HBcAg), lost the high stringency of selectivity in genome maturity during virion export. To understand the structural basis of this so-called(More)
ISG15 has recently been reported to possess antiviral properties against viruses, both in vivo and in vitro. Knock-down of ISG15 gene expression by small interfering RNA followed by alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) treatment in Huh-7 cells resulted in an increased phenotypic sensitivity to IFN-alpha, as determined by measuring hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA(More)
Previously, human hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutant 164, which has a truncation at the C terminus of the HBV core antigen (HBcAg), was speculated to secrete immature genomes. For this study, we further characterized mutant 164 by different approaches. In addition to the 3.5-kb pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), the mutant preferentially encapsidated the 2.2-kb or shorter(More)
Unlike a Tokyo isolate of hepatitis B virus variants, we found a Shanghai isolate that secretes few virions with an immature genome despite its core I97L mutation. Core mutations P5T and I97L were found to be mutually compensatory in offsetting their respective distinct effects on virion secretion.
Previously, a charge balance hypothesis was proposed to explain hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid stability, assembly, RNA encapsidation, and DNA replication. This hypothesis emphasized the importance of a balanced electrostatic interaction between the positive charge from the arginine-rich domain (ARD) of the core protein (HBc) and the negative charge from(More)
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