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Antigen presenting cells recognize pathogens via pattern recognition receptors (PRR), which upon ligation transduce intracellular signals that can induce innate immune responses. Because some C-type lectin-like receptors (e.g. dectin-1 and DCSIGN) were shown to act as PRR for particular microbes, we considered a similar role for dectin-2. Binding assays(More)
Gpnmb is a glycosylated transmembrane protein implicated in the development of glaucoma in mice and melanoma in humans. It shares significant amino acid sequence homology with the melanosome protein Pmel-17. Its extracellular domain contains a RGD motif for binding to integrin and its intracellular domain has a putative endosomal and/or melanosomal-sorting(More)
Utilities are measures of quality of life that reflect the strength of individuals' preferences or values for a particular health outcome. As such, utilities represent a measure of disease burden. The aim of this article is to introduce the concept of utilities to the dermatology community and to present a catalog of dermatology utilities obtained from(More)
sufficient pressure to cleave the stratum corneum without drawing blood. This technique was utilized in our case. Chamber scarification provides access to the dermal microvasculature, allowing enhanced penetration through the epidermis. This case illustrates the utility of chamber scarification for the detection of type IV hypersensitivity when standard(More)
A principal mechanism by which ultraviolet (UV) B radiation exerts its selective and antigen-specific suppressive influence on immune responses is through its effects on the capacity of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in skin, primarily Langerhans cells (LC), to differentially activate T-cell subsets. Recent evidence has indicated that LC, following UVB(More)
We have recently demonstrated that a single dose (200 J/m2) of UVB radiation abrogates the capacity of mouse epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) or splenic adherent cells (SAC) to present keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) to Ag-specific, MHC-restricted CD4+ Th1 cells. In the present study we determined whether such Th1 unresponsiveness represented long-lasting(More)
Low-dose ultraviolet (UV) B irradiation suppresses contact hypersensitivity (CH) reactions and alters the antigen-presenting function of epidermal cells (EC) in mice. To identify the EC sources of immunosuppression in this system, we examined the effect of UVB on the capacity of EC to induce and to regulate CH to trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB). On day 0, cell(More)
The discovery of several transmembrane receptors expressed by antigen presenting cells, including those that detect and interact with specific sugar moieties on the surface of microbes, has improved our understanding of how immunity against infection is generated. This knowledge, in turn, prompted us to review such interactions with emphasis on C-type(More)
Clinical and epidemiologic evidence has shown acanthosis nigricans to be closely related to defective tissue utilization of insulin in a number of previously recognized (e.g., obesity, lipodystrophy, and leprechaunism) as well as recently characterized (e.g., type A and type B syndromes) disorders. This article reviews the relationship of acanthosis(More)
T-cell activation is the net product of competing positive and negative signals transduced by regulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) binding to corresponding ligands on T cells. Having previously identified DC-HIL as a receptor expressed by APCs that contains an extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain, we postulated that it plays a(More)