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This article presents the results of the Implementation Study of the Seoul Cancer Registry, which started in July, 1991 as a population based cancer registry in Seoul, Korea. The completeness and validity of the registered data were evaluated using Mortality/Incidence ratio (M/I ratio), Histologically Verified Cases (HV%), Primary Site Uncertain (PSU%), and(More)
Even after the successful introduction of Cu-based metallization, the electromigration (EM) failure risk has remained one of the most important reliability concerns for most advanced process technologies. Ever increasing operating current densities and the introduction of low-k materials in the backend process scheme are some of the issues that threaten(More)
This paper presents a linear system formulation for evaluating full-chip electromigration (EM) risk in general (straight line, tree, and mesh) wiring topologies, considering stress-induced backflow of metal ions. The system of equations is based on stress gradients and mass displacements in wire segments as variables, and is formulated for efficient(More)
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