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Bluetongue virus (BTV), an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of both wild ruminants and livestock, has had a severe economic impact in agriculture in many parts of the world. The investigation of BTV replication and pathogenesis has been hampered by the lack of a reverse genetics system. Recovery of infectious BTV is possible by the transfection of(More)
Subunit vaccines based on recombinant proteins can suffer from poor immunogenicity owing to incorrect folding of the target protein or poor presentation to the immune system. Virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a specific class of subunit vaccine that mimic the structure of authentic virus particles. They are recognized readily by the immune system and(More)
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by Culicoides sp. biting midges to livestock, causing severe hemorrhagic disease in sheep, but is asymptomatic in the insect host. Similarly, BTV causes rapid cell death in infected mammalian cells in culture, whereas infections of insect cells are long-term and unapparent, despite productive virus replication. To(More)
Type I interferons (IFN-I) are important cytokines linking innate and adaptive immunity. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells make high levels of IFN-I in response to viral infection and are thought to be the major source of the cytokines in vivo. Here, we show that conventional non-plasmacytoid dendritic cells taken from mice infected with a dendritic-cell-tropic(More)
The insect-borne Bluetongue virus (BTV) is considered the prototypic Orbivirus, a member of the Reovirus family. One of the hallmarks of Orbivirus infection is the production of large numbers of intracellular tubular structures of unknown function. For BTV these structures are formed as the polymerization product of a single 64-kDa nonstructural protein,(More)
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a member of the Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family. Like those of other members of the family, BTV particles are nonenveloped and contain two distinct capsids, namely, an outer capsid and an inner capsid or core. The two outer capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5, are involved in BTV entry into cells and in the delivery of the(More)
Bluetongue virus, an arbovirus of the Orbivirus genus, infects and replicates in both insect and mammalian cells. However, the cytopathic effect (cpe) on each host is very different. Mammalian cells show substantial cpe, most likely a result of the mechanism of virus release, whereas insect cells show little cpe and appear to release virus without cell(More)
Like other members of the Reoviridae, bluetongue virus faces the same constraints on structure and assembly that are imposed by a large dsRNA genome. However, since it is arthropod-transmitted, BTV must have assembly pathways that are sufficiently flexible to allow it to replicate in evolutionarily distant hosts. With this background, it is hardly(More)
Eukaryotic organisms cap the 5′ ends of their messenger RNAs by a series of four chemical reactions. Some viruses achieve this using a single molecule; the crystal structure of such an enzyme from bluetongue virus reveals an elongated modular architecture that provides a scaffold for an assemblage of active sites, two contributed by a domain of novel(More)
African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of equine species. AHSV (nine serotypes) is a member of the genus Orbivirus, with a morphology and coding strategy similar to that of the type member, bluetongue virus. However, these viruses are distinct at the genetic level, in the proteins they encode and in their pathobiology.(More)