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An improved immunogold labeling procedure was used to examine the subcellular distribution of glucose transporters in Lowricryl HM20-embedded skeletal muscle from transgenic mice overexpressing either Glut1 or Glut4. In basal muscle, Glut4 was highly enriched in membranes of the transverse tubules and the terminal cisternae of the triadic junctions. Less(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic β cells. In humans with T1D and in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice (a murine model for human T1D), autoreactive T cells cause β-cell destruction, as transfer or deletion of these cells induces or prevents disease, respectively. CD4(+)(More)
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the rate and extent of glycogen supercompensation in skeletal muscle are increased by endurance exercise training. Rats were trained by using a 5-wk-long swimming program in which the duration of swimming was gradually increased to 6 h/day over 3 wk and then maintained at 6 h/day for an additional 2(More)
Poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) is an abundant nuclear protein that is activated by DNA damage; once active, it modifies nuclear proteins through attachment of poly(ADP)-ribose units derived from β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). In mice, the deletion of PARP-1 attenuates tissue injury in a number of animal models of human disease, including(More)
The role of inflammation as a mediator of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes and obesity has been a major focus of studies over the past ten years. In mouse models of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the development of insulin resistance correlates with elevated levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress and induction of the unfolded protein response. Activation(More)
Incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and the longer lasting analog exendin-4 show clinical promise for the treatment of diabetes because of glucoregulatory activities that enhance beta-cell function and growth, and actions in the central nervous system that induce satiety and decrease caloric intake. The actions of these peptides on(More)
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