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An improved immunogold labeling procedure was used to examine the subcellular distribution of glucose transporters in Lowricryl HM20-embedded skeletal muscle from transgenic mice overexpressing either Glut1 or Glut4. In basal muscle, Glut4 was highly enriched in membranes of the transverse tubules and the terminal cisternae of the triadic junctions. Less(More)
Visceral obesity is frequently associated with muscle insulin resistance. Rats fed a high-fat diet rapidly develop obesity and insulin resistance. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been reported to protect against the development of obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that DHEA protects against the increase in visceral fat and the development of(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic β cells. In humans with T1D and in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice (a murine model for human T1D), autoreactive T cells cause β-cell destruction, as transfer or deletion of these cells induces or prevents disease, respectively. CD4(+)(More)
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the rate and extent of glycogen supercompensation in skeletal muscle are increased by endurance exercise training. Rats were trained by using a 5-wk-long swimming program in which the duration of swimming was gradually increased to 6 h/day over 3 wk and then maintained at 6 h/day for an additional 2(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the increase in insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle glucose transport induced by a single bout of exercise is mediated by enhanced translocation of the GLUT-4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. The rate of 3-O-[3H]methyl-D-glucose transport stimulated by a submaximally effective concentration of(More)
Studies of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes suggest that variation in the calpain-10 gene affects susceptibility to this common disorder, raising the possibility that calpain-sensitive pathways may play a role in regulating insulin secretion and/or action. Calpains are ubiquitously expressed cysteine proteases that are thought to regulate a variety of(More)
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether endurance exercise training increases the ability of human skeletal muscle to accumulate glycogen after exercise. Subjects (4 women and 2 men, 31 +/- 8 yr old) performed high-intensity stationary cycling 3 days/wk and continuous running 3 days/wk for 10 wk. Muscle glycogen concentration was measured(More)
Many lines of evidence implicate oxidative damage in aging. Possible pathways include reactions that modify aromatic amino acid residues on proteins. o-Tyrosine is a stable marker for oxidation of protein-bound phenylalanine by hydroxyl radical, whereas 3-nitrotyrosine is a marker for oxidation of protein-bound tyrosine by reactive nitrogen species. To test(More)
Endurance exercise training induces a rapid increase in the GLUT-4 isoform of the glucose transporter in muscle. In fasted rats, insulin-stimulated muscle glucose transport is increased in proportion to the increase in GLUT-4. There is evidence that high muscle glycogen may decrease insulin-stimulated glucose transport. This study was undertaken to(More)
Muscle glycogen accumulation was determined in six trained cyclists (Trn) and six untrained subjects (UT) at 6 and either 48 or 72 h after 2 h of cycling exercise at approximately 75% peak O2 uptake (VO2 peak), which terminated with five 1-min sprints. Subjects ate 10 g carbohydrate . kg-1 . day-1 for 48-72 h postexercise. Muscle glycogen accumulation(More)