Learn More
BACKGROUND It is clearly established that emotional events tend to be remembered particularly vividly. The neurobiological substrates of this phenomenon are poorly understood. Recently, the noradrenergic system has been implicated in that beta blockade has been shown to reduce significantly the delayed recall of emotional material with matched neutral(More)
BACKGROUND In healthy controls, preactivation of muscles by exercise results in enhanced motor-evoked potential (MEP) responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). AIMS We tested the hypothesis that medicated, depressed patients would show reduced post-exercise MEP facilitation compared with controls. METHOD Ten patients with DSM-IV depression(More)
The connection between affect and memory is poorly understood. A possible psychopharmacological linking mechanism is the sympathetic arousal that occurs in response to threatening or emotive material. Cahill et al. (1994) reported that a single administration of 40 mg propranolol hydrochloride, a non-selective beta-adrenergic blocker, to healthy young(More)
WHO estimate that by the beginning of the next century major unipolar depression will be one of the most important causes of ill health overall. Whereas the cause of depression is still obscure, it is becoming clear that a number of diverse factors are likely to be implicated, both genetic and environmental. Effective treatment of depression similarly(More)
We hypothesized that impaired postexercise motor evoked potential (MEP) facilitation in depressed patients would reverse with recovery from depression. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and exercise of the thenar muscles were used to examine the 10 controls, 10 medicated depressed patients, and 10 medicated recovered patients. Depressed patients showed(More)
BACKGROUND "Neuroleptic malignant syndrome" (NMS) is a potentially fatal idiosyncratic reaction to any medication which affects the central dopaminergic system. Between 0.5% and 1% of patients exposed to antipsychotics develop the condition. Mortality rates may be as high as 55% and many risk factors have been reported. Although rapid escalation of(More)
Rationale: Animal and human evidence implicate the central noradrenergic system in the process of memory modulation for emotional material. Blockade of the beta-adrenergic system in humans has been shown to result in decreased recall and recognition memory performance, relative to placebo, for the emotional elements of a series of slides accompanied by a(More)
BACKGROUND Motor slowing in depression may be associated with a relative dopaminergic (DA) deficit. Bradykinesia in Parkinson's syndrome is associated with an abnormally short silent period (SP) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We hypothesized that depression would also be associated with a short SP. METHODS Sixteen patients with DSM-IV(More)
PURPOSE Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used for over a decade to investigate cortical function. More recently, it has been employed to treat conditions such as major depression. This study was designed to explore the effects of differential treatment parameters, such as stimulation frequency. In addition, the data were examined to(More)
BACKGROUND Prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to induce side-specific mood changes in volunteers and patients. To clarify inconsistencies between reports that used different stimulation frequencies, we conducted a controlled study with a low (1 Hz) frequency, comparing left with right-sided stimulation METHODS(More)