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Chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) is the first clear embryonic signal during early pregnancy in primates. CG has close structural and functional similarities to pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) which is regulated by gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). To study the regulatory mechanism of CG secretion in primate embryos, we examined the production and(More)
Relative preferences of energy substrates (glucose, pyruvate, and lactate) for in vitro development of hamster 8-cell embryos were investigated. Using protein-free modified Tyrode's medium (TLP-PVA) containing 10 mM lactate (L), 0.1 mM pyruvate (P), and amino acids (Phe, Ile, Met and Gln), we found that development of hamster 8-cell embryos to blastocysts(More)
The in vitro development of hamster preimplantation embryos is supported by non-glucose energy substrates. To investigate the importance of embryonic metabolism, influence of succinate and malate on the development of hamster 8-cell embryos to blastocysts was examined using a chemically defined protein-free modified hamster embryo culture medium-2(More)
Infertility is a reproductive health problem that affects many couples in the human population. About 13-18% of couple suffers from it and approximately one-half of all cases can be traced to either partner. Regardless of whether it is primary or secondary infertility, affected couples suffer from enormous emotional and psychological trauma and it can(More)
The development of hamster eight-cell embryos is inhibited by glucose in culture medium containing inorganic phosphate (Pi). This is hypothetically attributed to the "Crabtree effect," in which enhanced glycolysis inhibits respiratory activity and oxidative metabolism. To examine this hypothesis, oxygen consumption of hamster eight-cell embryos was measured(More)
The influence of sodium dihydrogen phosphate (Pi) and glucose on the development of hamster 8-cell embryos mediated by pyruvate (P) or amino acids (A) or lactate (L) was investigated using modified Tyrode's medium, TLP-PVA. When pyruvate was tested as the only energy substrate in medium TP-PVA for embryo development, blastocyst formation ranged from 81.3 to(More)
In mammals, acquisition of fertilization competence of spermatozoa is dependent on the phenomenon of sperm capacitation. One of the critical molecular events of sperm capacitation is protein tyrosine phosphorylation. In a previous study, we demonstrated that a specific epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, tyrphostin-A47,(More)
The peri-implantation development involves zona escape (hatching) of blastocysts and their attachment and proliferation. These events are difficult to study in vivo, so in this study hamster 8-cell embryos were cultured through the hatched and attached blastocyst stages using different formulations of hamster embryo culture medium (HECM)-2. Supplementation(More)
The earliest time of secretion of chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) by primate embryos and its role during preimplantation development and implantation are not clearly determined. We cultured in-vivo fertilized/developed zona-intact, morphologically normal morulae (n = 11) and early blastocysts (n = 11), freshly recovered (by non-surgical uterine flushing) on(More)
The effect of heparin binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) on the in-vitro development of hamster 8-cell embryos was investigated. Supplementation of HB-EGF to culture medium accelerated zona escape of blastocysts (63 +/- 9% compared with 33 +/- 9% after 36 h; P < 0.05). Complete zona escape of blastocysts persisted even after 48 h (61 +/- 11% versus 30(More)