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The expression pattern of proinflammatory cytokines, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) in the spinal cord and the bladder in response to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was investigated. In this connection, the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha),(More)
A major target autoantigen in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis is myeloperoxidase (MPO). Although MPO-specific CD4+ Th cells seem to orchestrate renal injury, the role of the Th17 subset is unknown. We hypothesized that Th17 cells direct injurious anti-MPO autoimmunity in experimental murine anti-MPO-induced glomerulonephritis(More)
Leukocyte recruitment contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI), but the mechanisms by which leukocytes promote injury are not completely understood. The degranulation of mast cells releases inflammatory molecules, including TNF, but whether these cells participate in the pathogenesis of AKI is unknown. Here, we induced AKI with cisplatin in mast(More)
Progressive renal fibrosis is the final common pathway leading to renal failure irrespective of the initiating cause. Clinical studies of renal fibrosis found that prominent mast cell accumulation correlated with worse outcomes. Mast cells are pluripotent innate immune cells that synthesize and secrete profibrotic mediators. Here we use mast cell-deficient(More)
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an important neutrophil lysosomal enzyme, a major autoantigen, and a potential mediator of tissue injury in MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis (MPO-AAV) and glomerulonephritis. Here we examined MPO deposition in kidney biopsies from 47 patients with MPO-AAV. Leukocyte accumulation and fibrin deposition consistent with cell-mediated(More)
Although Th17 responses may contribute to the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis, whether the key transcription factor in Th17 cell development, RORγt, also promotes glomerulonephritis is unknown. Here, we induced crescentic glomerulonephritis in wild-type and RORγt-deficient (RORγt(-/-)) mice. RORγt(-/-) mice were protected from disease, with reduced(More)
Antimyeloperoxidase antibodies can cause crescentic glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) respond to infectious agents activating host defenses, whereas infections potentially initiate disease and provoke relapses. Neutrophils were found to be key effector cells of injury in experimental models, as disease does not occur in(More)
T helper (Th)17 cells might contribute to immune-mediated renal injury. Thus, we sought to define the time course of IL-17A-induced kidney damage and examined the relation between Th17 and Th1 cells in a model of crescentic anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis. Renal injury and immune responses were assessed in wild-type and in(More)
Glomerular disease can be triggered or exacerbated by microbes that activate the immune system by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation. TLR9 activation promotes host defenses through the enhancement of innate and adaptive immune responses that facilitate the recruitment of leukocytes to areas of inflammation. We defined the role of TLR9 in experimental(More)
OBJECTIVE Autoantibodies constitute the hallmark of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV); however, CD4+ T cells play an essential role in the development of autoimmunity. Infection is associated with vasculitis, with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) a potential link between infection and autoimmunity. This study was undertaken to(More)